Archive for April, 2011

Natural wood

Parquet board and the array can be used in the kitchen, especially if combined with other functional areas – the living room or dining room – and it is assumed that the hosts will be here to spend a lot of time. Experts recommend that all same sex work zone (70-80 cm from the boundaries of kitchen units) to cover the stone or tile. Natural wood exudes natural warmth, so the system “warm floor” is probably not necessary.

Also for the kitchen facilities is desirable to increase the number of layers of lacquer to five.

Ceramic tile and porcelain

Ceramic tile and granite in the lead when it comes to decorating the kitchen floor. It has to clean up the kitchen more often, and indeed the cooking process (steam, high temperature, etc.). Does not exclude a certain influence on the floor covering.

In the collections of many factories there is granite with simulated wood flooring, that allows you to create the illusion of living area, but the care of the floor is still going to be easy.

To visually zonirovat space and achieve a certain artistic effect, the designers combine different floors, one of the most popular options – combination of ceramic tiles (kitchen area) and flooring (in the dining room area ).

Wood-polymer composites

In resemblance with natural wood, articles made of wood-polymer composites are strong and durable, do not rot, and the effect of moisture and temperature extremes, nonflammable and environmentally safe. Therefore, flooring and cladding panels of the KDP, for example, the Italian brand «WOODN», can be an alternative to usual covering of wood or tile in the kitchen area, as well as in toilets and bathrooms…

In the kitchen space, all finishing materials increased demands. Special attention is paid to the drafting of kitchen flooring choice, which should have high strength, wear resistance and at the same time integrate harmoniously in the interior design concept.

Laminate

Risk factors for this choice – the relative fragility of the material (on average – up to 10 years) and susceptibility to water. Ends meet – his weak spot, so when laying manufacturers strongly recommend that lubricate joints interlocks with special sealants.

The main advantage of laminated flooring is its cost – from 250-300 rubles. Per square meter. For the kitchen area should give preference to laminate with the highest degree of durability – 32-33 class.



Individual emphasis Alexander Braverman outlined the need to build this massive low-rise housing. Despite all the difficulties, in particular, the absence of a law on low-rise building, which unsuccessfully debated since 2007, the benefits of “maloetazhki” are obvious. First of all, is a question of consumer qualities – the level of living comfort, incomparable with the life of the “skyscrapers”: “This is a fundamentally new quality of life and space”, – said Alexander Braverman.

The head of the Foundation “RHD” also commented on the recent amendments to the Federal Law № 161 – on the free allocation of land within the HBC for young scientists. He noted that thanks to the Fund will be simplified procedure for separating the sections of this population: “We have more than 4800 young scientists working in the fields of innovation, many of whom are considering leaving abroad. One of the factors that can keep them – to create conditions for the acquisition of housing. while noting that it was not for dependents, these people are willing to buy housing on their own, just need to create conditions under which, for them it would be possible ». For members of the cooperative fund, together with “Sberbank of Russia” has developed a program of “10/10/10″ on which the first payment for accommodation is only 10%, the mortgage is issued at 10% per annum for 10 years. According to Braverman, the Savings Bank went In an unprecedented move, began to finance the project before construction even started.

Working with financial institutions fund is in two directions: the development of schemes of project financing for builders and mortgage programs for consumers.

August 31 edition of the newspaper “Komsomolskaya Pravda”, a press conference of Director General of the Fund “RHD” Alexander Braverman on “How to make housing more affordable? How to fund “RHD” deters the cost of housing ».

The main obstacle in the development of “maloetazhki” Braverman calls stereotypes of Russians and stresses the need to generate demand for low-rise housing and stimulate sales: “There is a persistent habit of the population to live in apartment buildings. Low-rise homes, most people perceive as second homes. Foundation “RHD” a lot of money to invest in the development of municipal infrastructure. For example, in the Maritime region, we plan to invest over 1 billion

One of the important factors causing attraction of low-rise suburban housing fund head considers necessary for the formation of a comfortable life environment. For this purpose, the Foundation is spending huge funds from its own funds. For example, to create a comfortable living environment in the city Istra of Moscow region will spend about 1 billion rubles, 183 million of which has already been invested by the Fund.

During the three years since the founding of the Foundation “RHD” already involved in trafficking 340 Land total area of?? about 6, 500 ha, of which 120 sites passed the subjects of the Russian Federation. In these areas, developed the capacity to build 6.8 million square meters of housing, including nearly 2 million square meters’ maloetazhek ».

Until the end of 2011 it is planned to involve at least 50 sites that, according to experts, will provide the basis for the construction of another 4 million square meters of new buildings. Thus, already by 2014 in areas of the Fund will be erected at least 30% of all industrial and residential construction in the country.

Asked about what impact the Fund “RHD” today has on the housing market, Alexander Braverman, said: “Traditionally, the construction cycle, from land allocation to the introduction of a residential complex in operation is about 5 years. m Furthermore, the use of energy-saving technologies in the construction allows for 30 – 40% reduction in the cost of utilities, creates a comfortable environment. First of all, the Foundation collaborates with the subjects of the Russian Federation, together providing a connection to utility networks, and interact with natural monopolies and financial institutions. A separate area of?? the Fund – is to provide developers access to a library of architectural design re- application. Cheaper housing, according to Alexander Braverman, will also contribute to the enactment of the so-called “Dutch” auction – auction in lowering prices.



Director of Sales of luxury real estate company Penny Lane Realty Alexander Zima believes that payback period of capital lease apartments range from 13 to 24 years, on average – 20 years, and luxury housing pays off more slowly than housing both in business and economy.

According to the company Ekocentrs, which results in “RIA Novosti”, an apartment in a quiet area of?? Riga can be bought for 600-700 euros per square meter, or 23 – 26.5 thousand

Director, Department of Residential Property Chesterton Ekaterina Thain in an interview, “RIA Novosti” reported another curious and sad because of its lack of detail in Russia. Money invested in buying an apartment in this country, back in less than 10 years.

Here plus the other – in the value of commercial property, which is lower than in Moscow is almost 5 times. you can rent from May to October for 1.5 thousand euro per month in other months of the year – for 0.5 – 0.8 thousand Totally at home really earn around 14-16 thousand EUR, excluding taxes. Return home is about 22-24 years. city apartments with the situation a bit better – return on investment does not exceed 17 years. Plans to profit from renting it out are only those who have not invested in their own apartments, “real” money, and received a legacy of housing or as a result of greater exchange of apartments for less, gained. According to experts of company “Inkom-real estate”, in July 2011, the average cost of hiring an economy class one-room apartment in the capital of Russia was 28,2 thousand rubles. That is, payback was a little less than 16 years. Housing investments have always been the most profitable in times of falling markets, but prior to their collapses – as many financial experts say. «Catch” this “instant success” is not given to everyone, even a professional broker. Which housing and where payback faster – this is the real estate market experts say. This is why calculating return on investment and benefit from rental housing is difficult»

In addition to difficulties with hold housing in the form of a reliable tenant, expensive repairs in between, the property owner strongly beats and a tax on personal income (PIT). Accordingly, the payback period is 15-17 years. Tax on rental housing is equated in Europe, such as income, so can “eat” up to 20% from those obtained from the sums collected from housing.

Faster residential investment pays off in Egypt and Panama. Average cost 1-bedroom apartment in Hurghada is 25-30 thousand dollars (about 700-850 thousand rubles).

It might seem like everything is simple – to save money, buy an apartment house under construction, to make repairs, rent, and – all. Next in the fantasies of most people who do not have such opportunities, draw pictures of palm trees, oceans and other joys of life for rent account.

Cyprus. euro (2.5 million rubles), which corresponds to 1.5 thousand euro per square meter.

“You can see that even in developed countries – Germany, Spain or in the spa oasis cost per square meter is much lower than in Moscow, – says” LOOK-Real Estate, “the director of consulting company” System Communication “Gennady Ovchinnikov.



Main structural part of the building are the walls. Walls – a supporting structure, for the calculation of sufficient strength, resistance to vertical and horizontal loads.

Vertical wall is a fence that separates the room from the external environment or from another room.

The walls are divided:

By the nature of the material – in stone, wood, walls made of local materials, as well as combined

Depending on the perception of stress – for carriers, self-supporting and non-bearing;

In this article we consider the basic types of walls on the nature of the material – wood and stone.

Pavestone wall

Pavestone wall erected of horizontally laid boards. Application of the boards makes it possible to eliminate manual processing of logs, cabin mates corners, junctions of walls and move to mechanized harvesting of the wall elements.

Wall logs are gathered at the factory with all vrubkami for mates and nests for the thorns.

Section beams for exterior walls shall 150×150 mm and 180h180 mm. Depending on weather conditions, for interior walls – 100×150 mm 100h180 mm.

Protecting cobbled walls

Effective protection cobbled walls from weathering is the planking or lining of brick, which protects walls from moisture, heat protection increases, reduces the effects of wind, at a brick wall covering fire increases.

Log walls and cobbled recommended bind or coat no sooner than 1-1.5 years after construction (after complete precipitation).

Wooden wall

The design of the wooden walls of heated buildings are divided into log-out logs or timbers, frame, panel and frame panel.

Stone walls

In the heterogeneous, lightweight walls of brickwork replaced by thick walls with thermal insulation tiles and an air gap.

Six-row system involves alternating rows of five Stretcher bond with a bonder. Each Stretcher bond series cross-vertical joints tie in a half-brick, longitudinal vertical joints formed spoons tied bonder series of five series. Stretcher bond

Masonry in six-row system is simpler than on two-lane. To decrease the breathability of the walls of masonry joints facial seal the special tool, giving the seams form roller, fillet or a triangle. This method is called jointing.

Frame walls

Frame walls require less wood than log or cobbled walls, are less labor intensive, therefore more economical.

Base frame walls is carrying a wooden frame, leather on both sides of leaf, or molded materials.

To make the frame exterior and interior walls using 50 mm thick boards, as well as devices for rafters and beams. With a thickness of 50 mm rack bearing walls is recommended to use a minimum width of 100 mm.

Supporting rack frame is placed on a distance of 0.5 m, linking with the size of window and door openings. Basement joists have overlapping at a distance of 0.5 m. The corner posts carry the frame of beams or composite boards, and the rank and file of the boards 50×100, 60×120 mm or.

Warming frame walls is carried out with mineral and organic materials with density up to 500-600 kg / m Materials for filling are: pumice, sawdust, gilak, shavings, peat, etc., which are largely inferior to their properties with modern mineral insulation.

Lightweight brick wall

Lightweight brick wall in which brick is partially relieved of his unusual insulating function by replacing the thermal conductivity of masonry materials, however, can significantly reduce the consumption of bricks, thereby increasing the cost of the material.

Lightweight brick walls are divided into 2 groups. The first group includes the design, consisting of two thin longitudinal brick walls, between which are placed insulating material, the second group consists of structures consisting of a brick wall, insulated thermal insulation boards.

Brick walls with insulation of insulated panels

Light-weight concrete stones in comparison with ordinary bricks have a lower bulk density and lower thermal conductivity, so the use of ceramic stones for construction of exterior walls to reduce their thickness. The disadvantage is that the light concrete stones smaller bulk density have a lower strength and resistance to weathering.

After laying the stones in the wall voids of average climatic conditions and the northern regions should fall asleep slag maloteploprovodnym material, because at larger sizes of voids in which there is air circulation, increasing the thermal conductivity of the wall. Filling voids maloprovodnymi materials increases the complexity of masonry. To reduce air circulation in the cavities used trehpustotnye stones with non-through voids – pyatistennye stones.

Crowning cornice

Crowning cornice brick wall with a small removal of its – up to 300 mm and not more than half the thickness of the wall can be spread from a brick through the gradual release of rows of masonry at 60-80 mm in each row.

Inner ends of the concrete slabs cover the teams of the longitudinal reinforced concrete beams that are attached to masonry with it clamped steel anchors, with the help of which ensure the stability of the cornice.

Shield Wall

Wall panels are made inside and outside, which, in turn, are subdivided into deaf, window and door. Shields consist of Pavestone trim and cladding, internal and external, which is placed between the heater.. To reduce air flow under the cladding pave the paper.

Boards arranged vertically and connected with nails. When designing joints between boards must provide sufficient density and air flow through the junction.

For freeze protection at the level of overlap on the outside are insulated suit.

Chopped log walls

Each row of logs in the wall called the crown.

Rallying rims with fluted grooves and push-stud size 25h50h120.

Crowns laid down a groove, thereby eliminating the possibility of wicking water into it. In the grooves between the crowns placed tow to seal the seam and insulation. Depending on climatic conditions the width of the groove take from 12 to 15 cm

Seams between the logs to reduce the air flow through the caulk tow for the first time immediately after the device wall and the second time in 1-2 years after the end of the precipitation. In the corners of the building mate vrubkoy crowns with remainder in a bowl or without a trace – in the leg. In the method of coupling rims at the corners in the leg, that is, without a trace, the wood is consumed to a lesser extent, so this method is more appropriate.



Q warmth of his home stood before the man from the Stone Age and has reached our days, without losing its relevance. We are becoming increasingly demanding in their home.

Let’s start with the main question that we often hear: “Why insulate the wall? She’s thick enough ».

Here are our main arguments:

Steadily rising energy prices are forcing increasing the budget for the maintenance of housing.

Try to understand what technology to better insulate the house to be comfortable in it at any time of year, regardless of local climate, in this case, that he had a flawless appearance and served for many years without repair.

There are several options for thermal insulation of buildings.

Heater is mounted on the outside wall.

Insulation outside the wall – Ideal for all types of buildings.

The outer insulation of the freezing point is in the thickness of the insulating material and the wall does not freeze, so – is not subject to the ravages of the environment. The heat losses are minimal. External heating system is suitable as well for the new facilities of modern construction and for renovation of old buildings. Insulation is located inside the wall.

Insulation located inside the premises.

Reduced internal volume of space.

External heating system is ideal for thermal insulation of apartment buildings, as well as for warming a small private cottage.

To date, the market offers quite a few specialized insulation materials for outdoor insulation of houses, so you can choose a heater at any taste.



Monolithic foundation

Application of monolithic reinforced concrete foundations, load-bearing walls, floors, staircases, columns, is becoming increasingly popular technology of construction of buildings. A rigid frame, which is formed in solid construction, very durable. The main components that add structural strength and making it possible to withstand the necessary load, are: reinforcing the quality of concrete used, and maintaining the technology monolithic pouring. The use of different forms of formwork allows you to perform various configurations of reinforced concrete, according to the most sophisticated and special needs, fulfilling life in the architectural projects of any complexity. High-rise building is not only used in the construction of tall buildings, but also for private holiday homes.

Solid foundation slab

The main advantage over other foundations, is its ability to perform in areas with high water table and unstable soils, due to the small and large burial area of??support. This foundation is used for all types of homes and a variety of grounds, ranging from ready-light to heavy shield and stone houses. The only difference in the thickness of the slab, the reinforcement scheme and add ribs.

Pile foundation

Pile foundation has the advantage of building on unstable soils. This base is used mainly for large and heavy structures. To transfer the load from the building to the ground using a pile. The foundation consists of piles and grillage uniting them

Tape melkozaglublenny foundation is a concrete structure, which is the perimeter of the future house. The construction of this foundation is to create a trench, a sand cushion device, setting the formwork, reinforcement, pouring concrete.

Our Services – the construction of the basement or ground floor “turnkey”.

Our company provides comprehensive services for the construction of the basement or ground floor “turn-key”, which allow you to completely eliminate the problems of orders, delivery, installation and assembly of construction materials. The advantages of this construction are as flexible system of discounts provided by our company. We are always ready for the maximum bonus in your favor after a certain joint arrangements.

The foundation slab is monolithic – refers to the foundations of plate or melkozaglublennym nezaglublennym. Slab foundation for quality performance usually requires a very large amount of construction work.

The most common – is the foundation of ribbon used in the construction of virtually any building, including versions with very heavy walls. The foundation of wooden houses are usually buried shallow, but a stone house band must be recessed below the freezing depth.

Fundam home

Let us first examine in detail what this pier foundation tees.

Does it make sense extension at the bottom of the column? In my opinion – no. Bearing capacity of clay soil – 3-5 kg/cm2. Ie without the pile at the bottom with a diameter of 20-25 cm has an area of??approx. 400 cm2 and is capable of carrying the load of 1500 kg. Pile with the expansion of the bottom 50 cm in diameter have to be capable of carrying 6, 000 lbs. It would seem that there is a win, and even quadruple! And the piles can be drilled home less often and to build more.

At a forum on construction as a serious dispute broke out, the alleged advantages of the columnar yew foundation. Tees – is a company that produces special excavation drills that make the bottom of the hole a special cone extension.

This is expected to expand on the one hand increases the area of?? bearing pier foundation (overcut 2-fold increase in the reference area 4 times). On the other hand, in the case of heaving soils, like clay, this extension serves as a anchor, the anchor that prevents the expulsion of the column of soil and slope.

There is another attempt to “conquer” nature and to establish their own order on it. Occupation, in my opinion, it is not productive, and sooner or later doomed to failure.

Now consider the case with a belt melkozaglublennym foundation. Per unit length is the same, but will cross 0.4 x 0.5 meters. (That would fit into the same 7.6 cubic meters of concrete). Footprint is (40 cm x 3400 cm) = 136. 000 cm2! At times more!

Accordingly, the ground pressure is lower. Even if the house is stone and will weigh approx. 150 tons (which is the maximum for the pier foundation), in the case of belt pressure will be only 1 kg/cm2! Around this pressure has on the ground walking man. With more than 5 times lower than the critical load-bearing capacity of soil. Ground did not even feel that it put the house. And in the case of columnar base are calculated on the brink of a foul. There is much to ponder.

This would be true if no need to make a powerful grillage connecting these piles together in one rigid structure. And the more savings on stilts, the greater must be this grillage.

It will cost so much cheaper in the basement bar graph. Carrying the same power as it is an order of magnitude greater.

It now remains to solve the problem of heaving soils and protect them from our wonderful band melkozaglublenny such a foundation.

This is done by constructing high-quality drainage of the foundation. After the trench for the foundation is ready, you should drill a few drainage holes at the maximum depth of not less than the depth of frost penetration. The distance between holes 2-3 meters. Down-hole drain and fill a large clean gravel or crushed stone. Instead, the pipe can be used “stocking” of a nonwoven material negniyuschego such agrila, fiberglass, polypropylene.

After the concrete hardens, the outside of the foundation is dug to a depth of transheyka narrow gravel to pour the foundation for the tape. This transheyku just fall asleep with rubble. Top arrange blind area to the width of 0.5 – 1 meter.

So we made a crushed stone trap for ground thawing and rain water, trying to saturate the moisture adjacent to the foundation soil. Any water immediately gets into a zone of rubble, trickle down and be drained. A dry soil is not puchit during cold weather, the foundation is always surrounded by a dry rubble.

Should we conclude from this that the pier foundation does not make sense? Of course not.

But if there is work to gain the columns and placing grillage – it is better not to spend the time and money, and go directly to the strip footing.

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Beginning of the XXI century is characterized by the richness and diversity of styles in urban architecture, from classical to avant-garde. Now you can find the building most different designs: cylindrical, resembling a medieval castles, palaces and even ships. N

What to look for

According to the experts, subject to the technological requirements of PVC windows have the same operating parameters, regardless of its shape and features of the building. Matter and dates of the Order, if they are month (or “yet unknown”), you are likely to engage in the manufacture of windows will be another contractor.

Price is calculated for each case individually based on the complexity of execution and order of specificity.

An experienced producer will always be guided by these restrictions.

Modern possibilities of the construction industry can realize when building a house almost any fantasy. This in its operational properties of buildings and structures of unusual shape does not give standard solutions. Manufacturing process windows of irregular shape imposes certain restrictions on their parameters. Thus, in contrast to the rectilinear frame curved element can not be strengthened reinforcement (steel insert inside the profile). Therefore, the diameter of opening the “round” windows with single-chamber glazing can not exceed 120 cm, and its design must involve horizontal or vertical reinforced impost (jumper), to which are attached loop. In general, the arch will be proportional to the size and diameter required if its height does not exceed half the width of the window. In recent years all over the world become increasingly popular at home, having a cylindrical shape or a polyhedron.

Windows to “convex” walls

Often in round houses made panoramic windows, while windows are large and consist of many straight segments. «Today is the most common solution was – says Leo Minullin, director of advancement Group of Companies” Propleks. ” – Windows, in this case is made of small linear segments joined at an angle. There were times when installers linking the sizes up to 25 items glazing on each floor, with no significant rise in construction ».

However, often do a combination of linear segments window profile can not be: there is a need to smooth curves (arched design, etc.), as may be unusual not only design buildings, but also its design. And it’s important for a variety of buildings such as the modernization of the old city buildings.

Odd-shaped windows in their properties are not inferior to the rectangular designs, but the production of these windows can take a long time

How to make “round window”

Production of rounded wood profile is even more laborious. First, make a polygon glued blank, and then it “smooths” a milling machine.

H The heated and softened, but not lost its structure is easily curved profile along the conductor, taking the desired shape as well, cools, gets the old stiffness.

For example, to produce a rounded frame made of aluminum profile, often used for glazing conservatories and balconies, it has to be bent by cold-rolling roller on special machines. This is a fairly expensive equipment, which is reflected in the price of the final product: it will be about 2.5 times more expensive than the rectangular design. In addition, as a rule, the minimum bending radius must be at least triple the height of the profile.

According to experts, the best material for the manufacture of window frames with nonlinear elements is PVC profile. In this case, do not need a special expensive equipment and bending elements of the window assembly occurs before our eyes.

Decisive importance here are the properties of the material of which make the frame translucent design.



Modern ventilation systems of smoking rooms

Modern ventilation and air filtration in smoking rooms may be included in the ignition light or by detecting the presence of people in the room with infrared sensors that can reduce energy consumption and automatically adjust the air, depending on the intensity of smoking indoors. A special multi-stage filter structure allows you to clean the air of the most harmful particles of different sizes. Some experts can offer you such a smoking room “without walls” that is, to put a modern ventilation system with filtration right at your desktop. In this case there would be no suffering is your work that you periodically before leaving during the “smoke break” any of your employees and visitors are forced to become passive smokers.

Design of smoking cabins are so diverse that, depending on the customer to form and style, they are ideally suited to any interior, not only offices, but also hotels, airports, cinemas and other public facilities. D

Fire safety smoking rooms

In recent years, when cases of fires in public places (clubs and museums) entail tragic consequences, special attention was paid to fire security crowded places.

Representatives from the market

Creating the optimal working conditions of staff affects not only physical activity but also the emotional state of employees. In the room we spend most of their lives, so the issue of providing a healthy climate is extremely important.

The consequences of inadequate ventilation, do not force yourself to wait: the excess moisture, heat and pollutants threaten closeness, condensation, mold. Office air pollution huge amount of impurities that are released in building materials, paints, furniture, office equipment, through the use of perfumes, tobacco.

Efficient and user-friendly ventilation system designed to suit the individual characteristics of each building. Combining low installation cost, low power, stability and the possibility of functional flexibility, it provides the best atmosphere in the room.

Provide local ventilation of public buildings

In any public building, whether it be office or shopping mall, cinema or theater, there are critical areas where the standard ventilation system require the intervention of local technologies, such as closets, smoking rooms, kitchens.

In some modern office buildings to combat the spread of smoke and the smell has allocated special room secured by a powerful local ventilation, which, however, is often associated with major maintenance and capital investment.

Construction smoking rooms

These areas protect employees and visitors from secondhand smoke, prevent the spread of smoke through the building, ensure order and cleanliness. In addition, such designs do not require a major overhaul of the building, resulting in more economical.



Provide local ventilation of public buildings

In any public building, whether it be office or shopping mall, cinema or theater, there are critical areas where the standard ventilation system require the intervention of local technologies, such as closets, smoking rooms, kitchens.

Let us consider the problem of unpleasant odor of tobacco and smoke on the premises for smoking.

Modern ventilation systems of smoking rooms

A special multi-stage filter structure allows you to clean the air of the most harmful particles of different sizes. The problem of the spread of bad smell in the smoking room is solved by establishing a special closed ashtrays for cigarette butts storage. Some experts can offer you such a smoking room “without walls” that is, to put a modern ventilation system with filtration right at your desktop. In this case there would be no suffering is your work that you periodically before leaving during the “smoke break” any of your employees and visitors are forced to become passive smokers.

D ekor smoking cabins can be executed, as in the strict style, and with stained-glass windows, tinting, sandblasting and application of any logos and pictures.

Representatives from the market

Smoking cabin, providing a smoke and a smell in the office, ready for you to design and install complex “Astarte Prestige”, “Ekolayf”, “Petroklimat», «Alfaintek».

Creating the optimal working conditions of staff affects not only physical activity but also the emotional state of employees. Fire safety smoking rooms

In the room we spend most of their lives, so the issue of providing a healthy climate is extremely important.

It is important to remember that all the usual air-conditioners are not always aligned with the ventilation systems are designed only to maintain the specified room temperature.

Efficient and user-friendly ventilation system designed to suit the individual characteristics of each building. At the same time it must be reliable and durable, and cost-effective, that is available in the design and installation and minimize energy costs. The most effective system is a forced-air ventilation. Combining low installation cost, low power, stability and the possibility of functional flexibility, it provides the best atmosphere in the room.

Construction smoking rooms

Less expensive option is the installation of indoor mobile smoking rooms, equipped with not only the local system, ventilation, air filtration and.



The head of the Foundation “RHD” also commented on the recent amendments to the Federal Law № 161 – on the free allocation of land within the HBC for young scientists. One of the factors that can keep them – to create conditions for the acquisition of housing. while noting that it was not for dependents, these people are willing to buy housing on their own, just need to create conditions under which, for them it would be possible ». For members of the cooperative fund, together with “Sberbank of Russia” has developed a program of “10/10/10″ on which the first payment for accommodation is only 10%, the mortgage is issued at 10% per annum for 10 years.

Alexander Braverman also noted that the Fund now “RHD” carries out its work in 83 regions, and this is only the beginning of the “big way”, as Prime Minister Vladimir Putin extended the emergency powers of the Fund until 2016. This means that the transfer of federal lands housing and other construction to this point will remain exclusively in the conduct of the Fund. This measure gave the result, federal agencies are beginning to actively cooperate with the fund. Fund was only 3 years and all the rules on our sites should be no more houses, however, they have already been built or are nearing completion in seven subjects of the Russian Federation – Kursk, Kirov, Tyumen, Cheboksaraskaya, Moskvskaya and other areas, due to the fact that we are reducing construction cycle for 35 %». An example of the speaker led project to be implemented in the Moscow region Istra, where a new neighborhood being built “East”, in which apartments will be sold on the open market at an estimated 42-45 000 per square meter. m This concerns first of all, the systematic work of the Fund with natural monopolies, when summing of utilities to the sites originally put into the plans for their development, as well as the approach to urban development plans: “We set a density of development, subject comfort, which does not allow the developer to sell a large amount of expensive housing market». This Fund “RHD” accompany their projects at all stages of implementation – from the sale of land at auction to date ready-made objects in operation. A separate area of?? the Fund – is to provide developers access to a library of architectural design re- application. All these measures significantly reduce the price and accelerate the construction. Cheaper housing, according to Alexander Braverman, will also contribute to the enactment of the so-called “Dutch” auction – auction in lowering prices. However, many individuals aspire to the presence of land and clean air. For example, in the Maritime region, we plan to invest over 1 billion In terms of construction is, in fact, New Beijing, only low-rise ».

One of the important factors causing attraction of low-rise suburban housing fund head considers necessary for the formation of a comfortable life environment. Istra of Moscow region will spend about 1 billion rubles, 183 million of which has already been invested by the Fund.

August 31 edition of the newspaper “Komsomolskaya Pravda”, a press conference of Director General of the Fund “RHD” Alexander Braverman on “How to make housing more affordable? How to fund “RHD” deters the cost of housing ». At the auctions provided 79 plots of land (2, 000 ha). B stage of development is a complex building 33 projects in 56 plots.

Since 2012 Thus, already by 2014 in areas of the Fund will be erected at least 30% of all industrial and residential construction in the country. This has all the prerequisites – the economically active population and a solvent, a construction industry that can meet the demand in energy-efficient and environmentally friendly housing, land and there is infrastructure development which helps to ensure that our Foundation “- Alexander Braverman. Despite all the difficulties, in particular, the absence of a law on low-rise building, which unsuccessfully debated since 2007, the benefits of “maloetazhki” are obvious. First of all, is a question of consumer qualities – the level of living comfort, incomparable with the life of the “skyscrapers”: “This is a fundamentally new quality of life and space”, – said Alexander Braverman.



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And the right to load on purses, “co-financed” at home sometimes threaten people’s lives. For example, Eagle Materials prosecutor’s check the criminal case against the contractor, poorly performed the overhaul of an apartment building. For the renovation of the house will have to pay. Is it the quality on it?

Overhaul soon cease to be a disaster, officials have promised: yet would return, he will hit our purses. For major repairs of homes will have to pay the owners – on a monthly basis and necessarily, said guide housing Reform Fund. Price problem – 1.5 trillion. Rub. What’s in this the amount of the share of regional and municipal budgets, and what – residents themselves to say no one has taken.

Meanwhile, co-financing major repairs in the run-in with might and main tenants of the regions, this year, as he wrote, “MK”,??an experiment worth 2.8 billion rubles in Moscow and began (the inhabitants of a hundred houses pay 5% of the repairs). Per month throughout the year. But this is still estimations. M) per year. If we recall the timing of the recommended overhaul (30 years), we see that each resident spends his order of 60 th rubles. In the capital, the average twice as high as 6 rubles per square meter. According to him, in the Central Federal District over the hill were withdrawn 25 billion rubles. The President was shocked and called an all-out test.

How to escape from the corruption was presented the tender system of selecting a contractor. But in reality it was all over formality in the contest win no bona fide contractors and those who offer the lowest amount. This and legs grow cheap, poor-quality repairs. Part of the money, of course, swims to the contractor in pocket, and to work on the overhaul remains with Gulkina nose. And the people then living with for years and subquality other defects.

Tenants at the same time as if deliberately left out in the cold. Owner is not participating in the survey the state of the house – tehzaklyuchenie up without him. – A list of necessary work, it would seem, must approve the collection of tenants.

Elusive ‘benefactors’

Two years ago, fell to overhaul the tenants out of the blue. «Stop, why, we have There is no HOA! “- did not understand the tenants. While completely around the buildings where the roof and flowing almost do not fall off the wall!

In the meantime, just renovated porches began surprises: tiles at the entrance to go cracked plaster began to crumble.

- Push off from the proposed regional experience, and he failed, – said Vyacheslav Humeniuk. Corollary – failure of the work (in fact “hidden”, not the eye of prominent not verified), technological disturbances. This, alas, a very popular scheme and in Moscow. Now, according to the mayor’s office, half of the homes in need of overhaul. The most important and burning question: Do we now get for their money quality repairs?

The reason, as explained in the council – a government decree of Moscow № 1032-PP, according to which the overhaul to be at home, in which, “according to monitoring Moszhilinspektsii, there is considerable wear and tear structural elements ». «It was created without the consent of the owners, no meeting has not been,” – says Oleg Sukhoruchenkov.

- Requiring a 5 percent co-financing of capital repairs of the citizens has resulted in relatively good repair that house, – says Galina Khovanskaya.

The total amount of unjustified payments for accrued citizens maintenance, according to preliminary estimates, is about 1 billion rubles.

Well, there are former and current employee of death metal – and Acceptance is at home successfully. On the subject of poor housing for the Moscow mayor’s office recently prepared a report. On the repair of five houses had been allocated a considerable sum, he says, – 300 million rubles. Including overstating the value of work – 13.2 million rubles, breach of contract – 3.7 million rubles ».

«It was in October 2009, – says Oleg. – Since we are warming ourselves heaters.” This family mockingly put up heating bills. Lawsuits filed Suhoruchenkova to DES “Shchukino” and overhaul the Department of the Northwest district, yet not led to nothing. The case of red tape, says victim of “a gift horse “first sought a contractor, who was not at the address, then – the organization that coordinated overhaul.

- In all of the annual government decrees was brought grim conclusion: major overhaul of the capital is made with disabilities – said Moscow’s assistant ombudsman, co-chair of the Moscow “Housing solidarity” Vyacheslav Humeniuk.

How to learn from the experts tenants, such tubes are more suited for country houses, but not for high-rise capital. In which a couple of years’ a gift “from the officials must begin to crack. Recently, state-owned corporation said that the right to withdraw from the regions up to 105 billion rubles – for obvious inconsistencies in reporting. «Our houses only some 25 years, and when Moszhilinspektsiya monitored depreciation in 2007, then decided that it was from 14 to 18% – one of the wonders” test “of tenants.

«Amazing” coincidence: as noticed by experts, a partnership created in those homes that are planned to subject an overhaul. A saw is that: in the last three years is allocated for the repair of 40-50 billion from the budget of the city. Is it any wonder that the house on Academy Bochvar kapremontniki seized upon all the hands and feet!



When construction work is most often used alkyd enamel.??

Water-dispersion paints – compositions, the main link component of which is film-forming aqueous dispersion of polymer (styrene-acrylate, styrene butadiene, polyvinyl acetate). When the paint dries on the surface a durable coating, resistant to water and many organic solvents.

Today, in addition to the traditional “dry finish” apartments (drywall, wallpaper, ceilings, etc. The new settlers used finish “wet” means carrying out painting and plastering work. But only at first glance it seems that it is easy to paint the walls. In the present variety of building paints and varnishes, even the choice of a suitable material is a problem. How to make sense of this diversity and to choose the best option? Hopefully, after reading this article you will be able to do it without much difficulty

Modern painting – is a complex multicomponent structure. It includes a film former (ie, a substance through which the substrate is formed colorful film), the pigments responsible for color and opacity coatings, fillers, solvents, and various Supplements – thickeners, dryers, etc.. End product properties are defined as the quality of each component and level of technology up their own paints. Speaking of “quality”, we mean not only a purely aesthetic or decorative characteristics of paints.

If necessary, the composition of the paint include biocides, preservatives material from the harmful effects of microorganisms, mold and fungi.

As a film-forming substance or, in other words, the binder used in paints, alkyd resins (alkyd enamel), vegetable oils and varnishes based on them (oil paints), potassium water glass (silicate bonding), the aqueous dispersions of polymers (dispersion paints).

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Most modern paints are thixotropic paint. In the normal state they are a gel substance that is stirring, as well as at the time of application to the surface for a short time becomes a liquid.

Buyer’s opinion

You know, I can well afford to buy expensive paint, but this last year when he made repairs, for some reason went and bought one that easier. I look, like, two cans of the same volume and the price of one three times. But as it turned out, nothing I have not saved: one cheap, I had to paint the surface in five layers to achieve the desired effect, and the road would be enough to guarantee at two repairs. In general, now understood not to have to look liters, and the square footage coverage that these same liters can “provide».

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«Make-up” for your home

But the owners of suburban property in the facade of the building (stone or wood ) strongly advise you not to neglect the use of paint, and possibly better.

Advice “LS”

- By itself, water-resistant paint does not provide absolute protection from moisture. Therefore, we recommend using a set of “related” materials, in particular, vlagoizolyator as a primer and water-resistant putty. – Buy primer, putty, putty and paint finish in one shop, otherwise there is a possibility the acquisition of incompatible materials, and therefore you lose on reshaping time and money. The last two criteria at first glance seem mutually exclusive, but actually it is not so. High-quality exterior paint to pass water vapor from inside the wall outside, but do not let water from outside to inside wall.

Interior to be painted

Therefore, for any interior work (painting of walls, floors, ceilings and so on. Alkyd and oil paints are used in small quantities: for finishing of wooden window frames, doors, and metal pipes and radiators.

For painting large areas it is recommended to use water-soluble dye dispersion. After drying such compositions, typically for chaspoltora (for comparison, oil and alkyd paints dry some day). The spectrum of waterborne paints is quite broad. A for painting walls and ceilings in wet areas, experts advise using a water-dispersion paints based on acrylic copolymers. Just do not forget mark in the notebook of the catalog name and number of the selected color. It is not excluded that in the future will have to tint the surface, and get exactly the same shade “by eye” is quite difficult. Sale today can also be found insecticidal, bactericidal and fungicidal paint, designed specifically to kill and deter insects and resist pathogens organisms and allergens.

«Colorful” market

Today in St. Petersburg, you can buy a lot of paint materials – both domestic and imported. In addition, in the shops of our city by the French company meets production Alpa, British ICI (brand Dulux), Turkish and Betec Sentapol and so on. A international group Akzo Nobel has built factory in Russia, “Akzo Nobel Decor”, which produces paint under the brand names of “Maestro” and Sadolin.

Many domestic companies are also engaged in the manufacture of paints.



The cost of building a house

In this memo, we will try to answer the question how much can cost house construction. Let’s go on back and show a real example, how many can not build a house cost in 2011

As an example, we will design the house of concrete blocks AR 176-37. We believe that we do not know the exact dimensions of the materials, design elements and focus on the data that is on the site.

Quality construction country house (wood frame)

Given the holidays, delays, weather conditions are likely during construction will be 4 months. Given that the construction team will be involved of 5 persons. Current indicators on vacancies and offers construction companies indicate that the minimum wage low-skilled labor force is not less than 25 000 rubles / month. Even assuming that you build a house these malokvalifitsirpovannye builders (which we you really do not recommend), the budget amount of wages not less than 500, 000 rubles. This is a competent companion receives no less than 60, 000 rubles from the site – it is 240 000 rubles to the fund payment. This is a very simple scheme Sabbath-order. Even with this scheme we find that the cost of construction will be 740, 000 rubles. To be honest, that will build these comrades will not be home in the conventional sense of the word, but it is not important in this article.

We see that the total cost of construction of aerated concrete box house on the draft AR 176-37, taking into account materials and labor will be: 2. 8344 million rubles. Thus, the construction cost of 1 sq.m. Boxes are not the most complex home with the assistance of the most primitive of labor would be 16 105 rubles / sq.m. The total area.

Conclusion: The cost of building a box at home from aerated concrete project AR 176-37 can not cost less than 16, 000 rubles / sqm. A priori.

And the cost of construction quality boxes at home will be at least 18, 000 rubles per 1 sq. M.

So why very often in sentences construction companies, we see the numbers 11000-12000 euro / sq.m. The figure below 11 000 USD / sq.m. We do not want to even comment, it’s just unreal.

What is the developer can win, saving the construction budget? In the general segment of the popular house plans, projects such trace amounts, so these homes do not have a practical implementation.

Dreams Come True

And, as always at the beginning of each construction season, we have prepared a short memo to the private builder, who hopefully will help them build their country home with minimal problems.

Building a house on an individual project

To sum up: the cost of working set of drawings of individual project home area of?? 200 sq.m. With sections of AP + CR + IP is not less than 288 000 rubles in 2011 prices. That is 1 sq.m. Is not less than 1440 rubles – this is a real minimum price the full set of drawings of the individual project at home with all the necessary partitions.

And if you get a 200 – 300 rubles / sq.m. Set of drawings of the 20 sheets, do not be surprised, there are no miracles, you got exactly what it’s worth the money. This complete an individual project at home has several albums of drawings, and includes at least 150 -200 sheets of drawings.



Reflecting the light, creating a mirror effect, lacquered ceiling visually expands the space

By the way, the suspended ceiling is almost ideal for new homes, which tend to “sit down” and “walk”: plaster, gypsum board in this case, the risk of cracking. The film will be such as it was. Only restriction for suspended ceilings – temperature. At too high temperatures (+45 ° C) over-stretched canvas can, but at low temperatures (from -10 ° C) becomes brittle. Therefore it is better to refrain from installing suspended ceilings in an unheated room or sauna.

Fix it? It’s easy!

Specialists that set the ceiling, offer a solution. This may be an opening for another lamp or just a neat patch, which impose on the reverse side of fabric.

Suede, marble every whim…

Stretch ceilings can be combined with gypsum structures. The result is a ceiling of any configuration

In addition to the rich palette and variations on the theme “matt / varnish,” the producers of PVC film for suspended ceilings offer a variety of textures. Here and imitation precious stones (eg marble, lapis lazuli), and a real chamois leather (suede surface is really in touch, but repels dust as well as lacquered ceiling), and beloved by the people “metallic” – reflecting the light, but not gives a mirror effect, and the ceiling-a chameleon that changes color in different lighting conditions. Matt translucent “opal” is ideal for ceiling mounting fixtures zapotolochnyh.

A variety of shapes

One-level lacquered suspended ceiling with art print.

From painting to molding

Angels are also popular, classical motifs found in both large and small palaces of the world, the ornament on the perimeter of the room. And you can place a ceiling on the photo beloved dog.

Rate

If you order a photo print, proofing is done first, which also requires time. Once all are selected, approved and cutting, installation of stretch ceiling is not more than one working day.

Price

A few years ago were regarded as ceilings rather expensive. Of course, now they can not compete on price with, say, plaster ceilings. Manufacturing companies offer a guarantee of 10 years, but in fact these ceilings can serve much longer – so their value must be divided in all these years.

As an example, the following figures for rooms of 15 sq. Km. M with four corners, one trumpet and one matte white ceiling fixture with the unit will cost in the different companies of St. Petersburg from 9.9 thousand to 14.5 thousand rubles. Photo printing adds to the cost of 1 sq. Km. M from 3600 to 5800 rubles. However, complex textures, as well as print, do not generally apply to the entire ceiling area, as well as an insert. Easy Setup

This is probably the only ceiling that can be installed in a completely renovated building. No dust, no dirt during installation is not seen.

Special technology allows the most bizarre form of ceilings

Look up – in search of inspiration, answer the difficult question, or simply a burst of emotion – a feature peculiar to man. Well, so far as overhead is not always constantly changing sky, would be nice to find something interesting to behold. There are many ways to do this, and everyone – its advantages and disadvantages.

Multi-level ceiling, the combination of gypsum ceiling ceilings, lacquered texture

Not afraid of almost nothing

For any other ceiling careless neighbors who have forgotten to close the tap – a deadly threat. But what will happen to the film from a few buckets of water?

Excellent feels suspended ceiling and wet areas – bathroom, swimming pool.

Stretch ceiling is not afraid of dust: it is covered with a layer of micron Teflon that prevents the accumulation of static electricity and dust repellent.



In practice, the cost base of approximately 15-25% of the boxes at home. But the cost to rework the foundation properly executed already reached 40-60% of the total cost and may be even higher if the house itself suffered extensive damage.

At the base of the foundation should be packed continental soil and its depth of burial can not well be less than 60 70 cm layer of sediments to reduce the relatively loose soil, lies directly under the foundation, it is recommended to replace the more dense and therefore less compressible. In this case, make a bed of coarse or medium sand without clay inclusions. Compacted sand covered with rammers.

The forces acting on the foundation.

Perhaps, in the homes of their friends have seen and will not open the door and twisted the porch, and the rickety porch, and brick houses – cracks in the walls. All this is the result of wrong choice of depth of the foundation. The fact that some types of soil in winter tend to slough, and the force of the swelling itself is so large that it is able to lift even a palace. But only if made by the foundation are illiterate.

Heaving phenomena – and insidious inconsiderate processes that occur in wet clay, silty soils and melkopeschanyh at their seasonal freezing. Does not matter they can not be that obvious to anyone even slightly versed in the construction of the developer. Many have realized this, finding a crack in the spring in a brick wall when he saw a country house or villa distorted wall frame construction.

Heaving phenomenon – is not only a large deformation of soil, but the enormous effort – in the tens of tons, which would lead to greater damage that can be avoided by laying the foundation below the freezing depth of soil. That is why before starting construction on heaving soils is necessary to clarify the calculated depth of freezing, adopted for the region.

Frost heave of soil, as experts call this phenomenon, due to the fact that during freezing of moist soil it grows in volume: silnopuchinistye ground – nearly 10%; slabopuchinistye – less than 5%. This occurs due to the fact that water increases in volume during freezing – up to 10%. Therefore, the more water in the soil, the more heaving. Thus, forest, standing on a strongly heaving soils, winter climbs to 10 – 15 cm relative to the summer level. Externally, it is not noticeable. But if the soil pile is packed with more than 3 m, the rise of ground in winter can be traced by marks made on this pile. Freezing manifested in the uneven ground picked up by the formation of ice lenses and layers, which, after thawing provoke decompression, erratic rainfall and decrease the strength of the base. The degree of heaving soils determined by the composition of soil, its porosity, and groundwater levels. For example, clay soils, shallow and silty sands are heaving soils, and coarse sand and gravel bottoms – to nepuchinistym.

The depth of soil freezing.

The estimated depth of freezing is taken for the coldest winter period, in the region, with a maximum soil moisture and lack of snow cover. Of course, the real depth of frost penetration is somewhat less than estimated. But the fact she rated in order to avoid possible destruction at home at the most unfortunate of circumstances, the proposed weather.

Favorable foundation for the future can be considered the conditions under which the depth of frost penetration is less than the depth of groundwater. Conversely, the conditions when the depth of frost penetration exceeds the depth of groundwater, are among the most difficult. Often, the customer is tempted to abandon the costly capital base unit, recessed below freezing (for the Moscow region is more than 1.4 m), and to confine light option, widely spread in many foreign countries. Savings significant, but in future this may lead to very disastrous results. Moscow – not Italy or Germany, or even Finland. In Western Europe, in conditions of mild (compared to ours) climate, depth of soil freezing almost never reach the ground water level, so the problem of blistering winter there is almost no soil.

The construction of the foundations with shallow depth of burial in the central part of Russia – a serious mistake. Malozaglublennye foundations are acceptable only for light buildings (villas, frame-panel houses, wooden houses, garages and outbuildings).

The ground water level and chemical composition.

The ground water level depends primarily on the variety of soils. For example, for the Moscow region is typical of loam. It differs in low permeability and non-uniform depth of the aquifer. Quaintness underground “landscape” makes precede any construction holding hydrogeological investigations. If the zone of capillary rise would be any obstacle (eg, concrete foundation built cottage), groundwater sources will wash it. Spring melting of snow and ice, summer rain, a fine autumn rain, so dear poet’s heart – all this creates an additional risk of flooding of the cottage.

If the groundwater level is high and they capture the depth of freezing, there may be two ways out of this situation:

Take this into consideration when choosing a reliable version of the foundation, regardless of the increase in estimates for construction;

Carry out works, providing a guaranteed reduction in groundwater levels

When designing the foundation it is desirable to take into account such important factors as the chemical composition of groundwater. The most aggressive environment creates a water with high sulfate content, the impact of which lead to the destruction of the concrete. Began the process of destruction can easily be identified by the appearance on the surface of the concrete coating of white plaster, and then – on the formation of delamination (as after freezing). To work in hostile environments of this type should be used sulphate cement. Often at individual structural elements of the house are the white spots of the crystalline form – the so-called efflorescence. Salt haze not only spoils the appearance of the facilities, but also suggest that circulates in the construction of the moisture penetration, for example, from the ground.

By way of support on the ground the main types of foundations are four:

pile foundation

pier foundation

slab foundation

Strip foundations

The foundation for a brick house

Solid foundation for a brick house can serve MZ-MP30-20 – Melkozaglublennaya monolithic slab 300mm. Slab foundation maintains good load bearing walls of buildings, reducing pressure on the ground, and evenly transfers the pressure on the subgrade. This foundation is recommended for construction on sandy soils.

A good design solution for the foundation of a brick building can be – Recessed band monolithic W-M50-120 penetration at 120cm, W-M50-150 penetration at 150cm, W-M50-180 – 180cm for penetration. Burying the foundation for 150cm, 180cm can arrange for such a house basement or ground floor.

At sites with poor soils can be arranged Z-BN25-150 – Recessed bored pile foundation with a grillage, the pile diameter 250mm withstand the weight of a brick building. The cost of pile foundation is relatively smaller than in deep foundations, but the device can not be a basement.

Variation of pile foundation for a brick house – Recessed with pile foundation grillage IPB-200 200mm diameter IPB-250 250mm diameter. Enlarged base piles ideal design solution for the heavy brick buildings, pile foundation for the “IPB” resists the forces of the seasonal frost heaving of the soil and can be arranged in the area and the snow.

Foundation for light structures

As a foundation for light structures are recommended MZ-MP20 – Band monolithic grillage 200h300mm, device monolithic grillage at the site of the slope is not possible, therefore, the foundation base is used as the foundation for the greenhouses, the foundation for the fences, the foundation for a toilet and shower on the flat areas.

Another option is the foundation for light structures MZ-M20-20 – melkozaglublenny band monolithic foundation 200h500mm size. This design is reliable to the vertical displacements due to buried. This is a solid foundation for the terraces, the foundation for arbors, the foundation for the garage, even if the construction is on a site with some bias.

Finally, a stronger version of the foundation for light structures – MZ-MU40-20 – monolithic reinforced tape melkozaglublenny foundation size 400h200mm + 200h300mm as the foundation for the panel house, the foundation for households. block, the foundation for a garden home, built in areas with a slope of more than 5 degrees and non-cohesive grounds.

Foundation for a bath made of wood

A simple foundation for light houses can serve MZ-MR30 – melkozaglublenny band monolithic grillage 300h400mm. This design is optimal as the foundation for a wooden house from a bar of thickness up to 150mm, can serve as the foundation for a wooden bath in areas with flat topography.

More rugged construction – MZ-M30-20 – melkozaglublenny ribbon solid foundation 300h600mm. Grillage in this embodiment, deepens to 20cm, so the plot may be a small bias (up to 5 degrees). This is the best option for the foundation of lumber at home, the foundation for a bath or a bath-house of logs, the foundation of a log home for manual felling of logs with a diameter up to 300mm.

If there is no certainty in the soil at the site, you can lay the foundation design MZ-MU60-20 – monolithic reinforced tape melkozaglublenny foundation 600h200mm + 300h400mm. This is a good foundation for a bath out of a log on the site with a slope of more than 5 degrees.



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