Archive for March, 2011

Mar

27

The most modern way to deal with snow and ice are the anti-icing system on the basis of heating cables, which are divided into resistive and self-regulating. Resistive Cables evenly warms the entire length, having the same temperature for different parts of the roof.

Even using modern means of protecting the roof from ice periodically may need personal intervention of the owners of the house in the process of cleaning the roof. The fact that exposure to heat from the roof, it forms a thin crust of ice – in an effort to remove it using the tools, you can scratch the polymer coating of metal.

Even if you climb to the roof once a year, the roof must be absolutely secure. Perhaps we should take care to install additional safety features – special fasteners, catwalks and snegozaderzhateley etc. These options are usually available at complex ordering of the roof together with installation from one contractor.

According to existing regulations gutters on the buildings should be located approximately every 12-16 meters, and the size of the gutters should depend on the area of?? the roof.

In the standing seam roofing, trapezoidal sheet, asphalt shingles and metal roofing new coating can be installed directly on top. It is only necessary to check the status of supporting structures, the layer ventilation and install a new crate for fixing roofing sheets. If you’re dealing with asbestos roof, it must first be removed, and by checking the reliability of the supporting structures, install metal roofing on new crate.

Best way to prepare for that time in advance: if the process of care for the roof will not require much effort, and the occupants do not have to always wait for a “raid” on top of icicles.

Icicles often occur because the heat passing through the poorly insulated cover, snow warms up and it begins to melt. To solve this problem, you can use roll or bulk goods. On the attic floor insulation is laid on the outer wall, overlapping the vertical walls are insulated layer. In carrying out such work must necessarily take into account ventilation. Natural ventilation is provided by special openings under the eaves and ridge and dormers and gables on the slopes of the roofs.

In general, the concept of order in a complex “plus roof assembly” is completely justified. First, just so you can be sure of the compatibility of all components. Second, it allows you to count on a substantial discount, saving or on the roof, or in the installation. This contracting company is obliged to provide a guarantee, and often provide the maintenance of the roof.



This is partly because – for helping out on the rental money is really possible to live. And most importantly – how long it drags on the process of returning spent on real estate funds. 1-bedroom apartments in new residential complex, a skyscraper next to the ocean (45-50 feet) is now the order of 130-140 thousand dollars. Money invested in buying an apartment in this country, back in less than 10 years.

In Spain, a square meter on the coast now costs an average of 1.7 – 2 thousand euro in large cities, especially in the most expensive Barcelona and Madrid – 3 – 3,5 thousand euro. you can rent from May to October for 1.5 thousand euro per month in other months of the year – for 0.5 – 0.8 thousand euro. Totally at home really earn around 14-16 thousand EUR, excluding taxes. city apartments with the situation a bit better – return on investment does not exceed 17 years. euro for 38 meter one-bedroom apartment (on average exactly one million rubles). «Catch” this “instant success” is not given to everyone, even a professional broker. This expert stated, “RIA-Novosti».

Faster residential investment pays off in Egypt and Panama.

Here plus the other – in the value of commercial property, which is lower than in Moscow is almost 5 times. Plans to profit from renting it out are only those who have not invested in their own apartments, “real” money, and received a legacy of housing or as a result of greater exchange of apartments for less, gained. This is why calculating return on investment and benefit from rental housing is difficult»

Return – one of the main criteria of any business and the acquisition of property – is also a business, with a very specific and complicated. rent such apartments can be in the 400-600 euros, which means that they can pay off in 8.5 – 13 years.

An example of the relation of “money-house-money” can be illustrated by a 1-room apartments of 38 “squares». rubles. In Europe, many earn their living by playing on the difference between the cost of mortgages obtained for the acquisition of property and income derived from its lease. base is very simple – very low mortgage rates – at 3.5 – 4.5% per annum. C level of the Russian mortgage rates on such income can not count.

If you do not take into account the difficulty with the delivery of housing for rent (seasonality, expenditure on repairs and maintenance, etc.), the picture is leased accommodation in the world looks so. EUR 1-bedroom apartments of 35-40 square meters is 35-40 thousand Euro (about 1.4 – 1.6 million rubles). rent is such an object may no more than 200 euros a month.



At present, the “old continent” is considered a good income in calculating the amount of 5-8% of the purchase price per year. Thus, on average, we can say that the apartments in Germany, Holland, Belgium, Austria, France pays off for 14-17 years ». For the vast majority of foreign countries, this tax is paid not to the total income (that have gross income), as in Russia, and the difference between revenues and expenditures (ie net income). This cost can be attributed to almost all the costs of property maintenance.

Here plus the other – in the value of commercial property, which is lower than in Moscow is almost 5 times. At the level of narrow-minded investments in homes and flats look the “most beautiful”, but in fact they are not as profitable. Average cost 1-bedroom apartment in Hurghada is 25-30 thousand Rent – about $ 250 a month, that is, payback would be 7.5 -9 years.

Latvia. Rents for such apartments will vary between 100-150 euros, while return on investment will be from 14 to 20 years, which is close to Moscow’s performance or even slightly lower.

This is why calculating return on investment and benefit from rental housing is difficult»

Director, Department of Residential Property Chesterton Ekaterina Thain in an interview, “RIA Novosti” reported another curious and sad because of its lack of detail in Russia. In Europe, many earn their living by playing on the difference between the cost of mortgages obtained for the acquisition of property and income derived from its lease. C level of the Russian mortgage rates on such income can not count. Money invested in buying an apartment in this country, back in less than 10 years.

Capital market experts believe that the main motivation for investing in housing is the hope for prices to “square». Plans to profit from renting it out are only those who have not invested in their own apartments, “real” money, and received a legacy of housing or as a result of greater exchange of apartments for less, gained.

In other countries, as is easily seen by applying the most simple, “rustic” payback formula (the ratio of purchase price to the annual income from her rental), you can find much more interesting, “real estate” investment options available funds. According to experts of company “Inkom-real estate”, in July 2011, the average cost of hiring an economy class one-room apartment in the capital of Russia was 28,2 thousand rubles. That is, payback was a little less than 16 years. For example, in Varna cost per “square” in an average of 1 thousand EUR 1-bedroom apartments of 35-40 square meters is 35-40 thousand Euro (about 1.4 – 1.6 million rubles). rent is such an object may no more than 200 euros a month.

If you do not take into account the difficulty with the delivery of housing for rent (seasonality, expenditure on repairs and maintenance, etc.), the picture is leased accommodation in the world looks so.

Return – one of the main criteria of any business and the acquisition of property – is also a business, with a very specific and complicated. euro per square meter. This expert stated, “RIA-Novosti». Q – how to live and a place to live. Totally at home really earn around 14-16 thousand EUR, excluding taxes. city apartments with the situation a bit better – return on investment does not exceed 17 years.



Provide local ventilation of public buildings

Experts found that the presence of 8 hours in a room where smoking leads to environmental tobacco smoke, smoking corresponding to 5 cigarettes.

In the room we spend most of their lives, so the issue of providing a healthy climate is extremely important.

The consequences of inadequate ventilation, do not force yourself to wait: the excess moisture, heat and pollutants threaten closeness, condensation, mold.

Modern ventilation systems of smoking rooms

A special multi-stage filter structure allows you to clean the air of the most harmful particles of different sizes. The problem of the spread of bad smell in the smoking room is solved by establishing a special closed ashtrays for cigarette butts storage.

Design of smoking cabins are so diverse that, depending on the customer to form and style, they are ideally suited to any interior, not only offices, but also hotels, airports, cinemas and other public facilities. D ekor smoking cabins can be executed, as in the strict style, and with stained-glass windows, tinting, sandblasting and application of any logos and pictures.

Construction smoking rooms

Less expensive option is the installation of indoor mobile smoking rooms, equipped with not only the local system, ventilation, air filtration and.

Fire safety smoking rooms

Main causes of fires are nepotushennye cigarettes.

Representatives from the market

Smoking cabin, providing a smoke and a smell in the office, ready for you to design and install complex “Astarte Prestige”, “Ekolayf”, “Petroklimat», «Alfaintek».

Remember that the money spent on high-quality ventilation system, is first of all, investment in health. Giving the opportunity to Office of the “breathe”, you are providing a favorable psychological climate in the team, and hence a high level of performance the team.



Application of dye spray formulations is still not very common technique in conducting internal and external finishing works.

Perfect for spray painting of flat surfaces – doors, walls, decorative screens, furniture – because this method allows a perfectly smooth, thin coat of paint.

Too smooth or polished surfaces can also be pre-cleaned fine sandpaper or a sanding machine to process – of course, only if it does not spoil the appearance of the details.

When using sprays and aerosols must use appropriate protective equipment – respirators and masks. Remember: getting even a small amount of air and the colorful mixture into the respiratory tract can cause serious health problems.

More sophisticated and powerful kind of spray equipment are electric spray guns. They provide better performance and accuracy, many current models also provide the ability to control operating parameters – the geometry of the torch (jet ink mixed with air), by pressure, the amount of air in the mixture, etc.

Before painting a better test spray on a piece of paper – it will help you determine how hard spraying and find the best distance and angle. In most cases, will be optimal distance of 25-30 centimeters. Then you can apply a little paint on a hidden part of the subject – or the wrong side of the corner – to see how the paint lies on the surface of your choice.

Object surface be coated must be cleaned of any dirt and dust, wood and metal objects should also cover the primer. This is necessary in order to paint a better lie down and / or taken the necessary texture. Primer also prevents rust after staining.

The secret of the correct paint surfaces using a spray – the uniformity and continuity of movement. If you use an aerosol – periodically shake it to mix the paint.

Inside there should be no large amounts of dust, easily stick to freshly painted surfaces.

Make sure the paint is applied evenly without too pale or densely-stained sections.



Average cost 1-bedroom apartment in Hurghada is 25-30 thousand Rent – about $ 250 a month, that is, payback would be 7.5 -9 years. Housing investments have always been the most profitable in times of falling markets, but prior to their collapses – as many financial experts say. «Catch” this “instant success” is not given to everyone, even a professional broker. At the level of narrow-minded investments in homes and flats look the “most beautiful”, but in fact they are not as profitable.

villa near the sea costs about 300-350 thousand € (200-250 square feet). euro. Totally at home really earn around 14-16 thousand EUR, excluding taxes. city apartments with the situation a bit better – return on investment does not exceed 17 years. Today, however, these figures are quite arbitrary, since the real estate market is in crisis, and fell on landlords are not the best of times. This is why calculating return on investment and benefit from rental housing is difficult»

“You can see that even in developed countries – Germany, Spain or in the spa oasis cost per square meter is much lower than in Moscow, – says” LOOK-Real Estate, “the director of consulting company” System Communication “Gennady Ovchinnikov. According to experts of company “Inkom-real estate”, in July 2011, the average cost of hiring an economy class one-room apartment in the capital of Russia was 28,2 thousand rubles per month, per square meter cost an average of 137.3 thousand That is, payback was a little less than 16 years. The lease is for rent by 1.2 – 1.5 thousand dollars a month.

Capital market experts believe that the main motivation for investing in housing is the hope for prices to “square». This cost can be attributed to almost all the costs of property maintenance. This expert stated, “RIA-Novosti».

Latvia. According to the company Ekocentrs, which results in “RIA Novosti”, an apartment in a quiet area of?? Riga can be bought for 600-700 euros per square meter, or 23 – 26.5 thousand Rents for such apartments will vary between 100-150 euros, while return on investment will be from 14 to 20 years, which is close to Moscow’s performance or even slightly lower.

“Of course, the starting point is the cost per square meter – says” LOOK-Real Estate “CEO of the consulting agency” B Tax on rental housing is equated in Europe, such as income, so can “eat” up to 20% from those obtained from the sums collected from housing. Thus, on average, we can say that the apartments in Germany, Holland, Belgium, Austria, France pays off for 14-17 years ».

It might seem like everything is simple – to save money, buy an apartment house under construction, to make repairs, rent, and – all. And most importantly – how long it drags on the process of returning spent on real estate funds. EUR 1-bedroom apartments of 35-40 square meters is 35-40 thousand Euro (about 1.4 – 1.6 million rubles). rent is such an object may no more than 200 euros a month.

Cyprus. According to the Cypriot company Veskip Properties, now in Limassol, 100 meters from the sea sold the 39-meter apartment for 62 thousand euro (2.5 million rubles), which corresponds to 1.5 thousand rent such apartments can be in the 400-600 euros, which means that they can pay off in 8.5 – 13 years. base is very simple – very low mortgage rates – at 3.5 – 4.5% per annum. C level of the Russian mortgage rates on such income can not count.



m Furthermore, the use of energy-saving technologies in the construction allows for 30 – 40% reduction in the cost of utilities, creates a comfortable environment.

Significant reduction in cost per square meter of the Fund can be achieved through judicious approach to the complex development of territories. First of all, the Foundation collaborates with the subjects of the Russian Federation, together providing a connection to utility networks, and interact with natural monopolies and financial institutions. All these measures significantly reduce the price and accelerate the construction. It is important that each region of the Foundation specifically looks for sites that are suitable for this housing, paying attention to, in what direction the city and the subject, which are engineering network, as well as whether there is effective demand (the activity of the middle class). Despite all the difficulties, in particular, the absence of a law on low-rise building, which unsuccessfully debated since 2007, the benefits of “maloetazhki” are obvious. This has all the prerequisites – the economically active population and a solvent, a construction industry that can meet the demand in energy-efficient and environmentally friendly housing, land and there is infrastructure development which helps to ensure that our Foundation “- Alexander Braverman. At the auctions provided 79 plots of land (2, 000 ha). B stage of development is a complex building 33 projects in 56 plots.

August 31 edition of the newspaper “Komsomolskaya Pravda”, a press conference of Director General of the Fund “RHD” Alexander Braverman on “How to make housing more affordable? How to fund “RHD” deters the cost of housing ». One of the factors that can keep them – to create conditions for the acquisition of housing. According to Braverman, the Savings Bank went In an unprecedented move, began to finance the project before construction even started.

Alexander Braverman also noted that the Fund now “RHD” carries out its work in 83 regions, and this is only the beginning of the “big way”, as Prime Minister Vladimir Putin extended the emergency powers of the Fund until 2016. This means that the transfer of federal lands housing and other construction to this point will remain exclusively in the conduct of the Fund. «We produce the best sites, which have warmed the heart” – said the head of the Fund, assuring reporters that directly deal with the construction of the Fund does not intend to, but will continue to create optimal conditions for the development of the industry.

Until the end of 2011 it is planned to involve at least 50 sites that, according to experts, will provide the basis for the construction of another 4 million square meters of new buildings. Foundation “RHD” plans to engage a housing no less than 7500 hectares of land per year. Thus, already by 2014 in areas of the Fund will be erected at least 30% of all industrial and residential construction in the country.

The main obstacle in the development of “maloetazhki” Braverman calls stereotypes of Russians and stresses the need to generate demand for low-rise housing and stimulate sales: “There is a persistent habit of the population to live in apartment buildings. Foundation “RHD” a lot of money to invest in the development of municipal infrastructure. For example, in the Maritime region, we plan to invest over 1 billion rubles to the settlements in the Bay of Patroclus and Labor. In terms of construction is, in fact, New Beijing, only low-rise ». Plans Fund build on their plots of 70% is low-rise housing.

One of the important factors causing attraction of low-rise suburban housing fund head considers necessary for the formation of a comfortable life environment. First of all, it is a social and transport infrastructure, from transport interchanges and car parks, finishing schools, kindergartens, hospitals and parks. For this purpose, the Foundation is spending huge funds from its own funds.



According to him, in the Central Federal District over the hill were withdrawn 25 billion rubles.

I remember in 1991 the city authorities undertook to overhaul apartment buildings, before responsibility for their content go to the owners. Now, according to the mayor’s office, half of the homes in need of overhaul. The most important and burning question: Do we now get for their money quality repairs?

Including overstating the value of work – 13.2 million rubles, breach of contract – 3.7 million rubles ». But this is still estimations. Rubles. In the capital, the average twice as high as 6 rubles per square meter. «It was created without the consent of the owners, no meeting has not been,” – says Oleg Sukhoruchenkov. And after disbursement of funds, these condominiums are usually disappear. The average home accounts for 22.2 million rubles. Is it any wonder that the house on Academy Bochvar kapremontniki seized upon all the hands and feet!

Mighty pipes, meanwhile, threatened with death: contractor famously took me to their puny plastic. In which a couple of years’ a gift “from the officials must begin to crack.

The story begins to resemble a detective. – And the next, in 2008, after the monitoring commissioned by prefectural SZAO figures were others: wear any high level of 50%! »

«It was in October 2009, – says Oleg. – Since we are warming ourselves heaters.” This family mockingly put up heating bills. Lawsuits filed Suhoruchenkova to DES “Shchukino” and overhaul the Department of the Northwest district, yet not led to nothing.

If this is a porches, what vytvoryat in apartments? Frightened by the prospect, part of the tenants tightly shut doors to communal services. Among them Suhoruchenkova family, just before the invasion has made them an expensive repair. Passions ran high, says Oleg: “People are pressed, threatened to Travel Abroad and promised various calamities. – While residents are very poor housing, where the price of the question above, this load can not cope.

And this is before the full introduction of co-operation in the overhaul! Of what is happening in the regions where it operates more than a year, long affected the Fund for Reforming Housing.

Elusive ‘benefactors’

Two years ago, fell to overhaul the tenants out of the blue. «Stop, why, we have There is no HOA! “- did not understand the tenants.

The reason is simple: the local authorities in the pursuit of money connected to the work of affiliates, the is “their” contractors. Corollary – failure of the work (in fact “hidden”, not the eye of prominent not verified), technological disturbances. Scheme and a simple run-everywhere – the territorial authority creates a “fake” HOAs. So much so, that invented a treatment for Dmitry Medvedev and Vladimir Putin. On the repair of five houses had been allocated a considerable sum, he says, – 300 million rubles. The reason, as explained in the council – a government decree of Moscow № 1032-PP, according to which the overhaul to be at home, in which, “according to monitoring Moszhilinspektsii, there is considerable wear and tear structural elements ».

This text yet closed, but the main summary expert shared: lessons from overhaul from previous years in Moscow and were not made.

- In all of the annual government decrees was brought grim conclusion: major overhaul of the capital is made with disabilities – said Moscow’s assistant ombudsman, co-chair of the Moscow “Housing solidarity” Vyacheslav Humeniuk. According to the expert, in the process repair of the roof was dismantled brick masonry parapet, and the remaining part is now “in an unstable position». «In general, after major repairs the roof of an apartment house is in disrepair, which can lead to its destruction and the collapse of the people”, – concluded the prosecutor’s office in the Oryol region.

The first bells in the meantime already have. Is it the quality on it?

Family of the Moscow region Suhoruchenkova Shchukino terror prepares for his third winter in an apartment, cut off from the heating system. Why pay Muscovites – for high-quality conversions or for past outrages, understood “MK “.

How to escape from the corruption was presented the tender system of selecting a contractor. But in reality it was all over formality in the contest win no bona fide contractors and those who offer the lowest amount. MP recalls instances when workers repair just throwing in the middle and left, saying that the money allocated to the house, ran out. And the people then living with for years and subquality other defects.

Tenants at the same time as if deliberately left out in the cold. Owner is not participating in the survey the state of the house – tehzaklyuchenie up without him. – A list of necessary work, it would seem, must approve the collection of tenants. But it is known as drawn up such bogus records! The owner is not involved in choosing a contractor.

If accepted, the question for 15 years, major overhaul of the country will be solved, says deputy director Vladimir Talalykin Fund. Price problem – 1.5 trillion. Rub. What’s in this the amount of the share of regional and municipal budgets, and what – residents themselves to say no one has taken.



Fundam home

Let us first examine in detail what this pier foundation tees.

Does it make sense extension at the bottom of the column? In my opinion – no. Bearing capacity of clay soil – 3-5 kg/cm2. Ie without the pile at the bottom with a diameter of 20-25 cm has an area of??approx. 400 cm2 and is capable of carrying the load of 1500 kg. Pile with the expansion of the bottom 50 cm in diameter have to be capable of carrying 6, 000 lbs. It would seem that there is a win, and even quadruple! And the piles can be drilled home less often and to build more.

At a forum on construction as a serious dispute broke out, the alleged advantages of the columnar yew foundation. Tees – is a company that produces special excavation drills that make the bottom of the hole a special cone extension.

This is expected to expand on the one hand increases the area of?? bearing pier foundation (overcut 2-fold increase in the reference area 4 times). On the other hand, in the case of heaving soils, like clay, this extension serves as a anchor, the anchor that prevents the expulsion of the column of soil and slope.

And this expansion is recommended to lower the freezing point of soil, ie at a depth of 1.5 meters and below (for the middle zone of European part of Russia). In addition, all posts tied together with special concrete beams – grillage.

I am neither enemy nor a supporter of this method of construction of the foundation, but merely suggest that to understand whether or not worth it and if there are other ways to “neutralize” heaving soils and build a simple, cheap and yet reliable foundation.

If you do well at the bottom of the expansion to 50 cm, it will add about 1 m3 of concrete, but severely complicate the device well. Foundation bearing capacity will increase to 150 tons.

This would be true if no need to make a powerful grillage connecting these piles together in one rigid structure. And the more savings on stilts, the greater must be this grillage.

But you can secure it and the other is much more simple methods. For example, by constructing high-quality drainage of the foundation. Then on this basis simply will not work any destructive force. And no one will not have to win.

It now remains to solve the problem of heaving soils and protect them from our wonderful band melkozaglublenny such a foundation.

This is done by constructing high-quality drainage of the foundation. After the trench for the foundation is ready, you should drill a few drainage holes at the maximum depth of not less than the depth of frost penetration. The distance between holes 2-3 meters. Down-hole drain and fill a large clean gravel or crushed stone. Instead, the pipe can be used “stocking” of a nonwoven material negniyuschego such agrila, fiberglass, polypropylene.

Then at the bottom of the trench in the drain hole is poured a layer of gravel. In the intervals between the holes can be filled sand, which is carefully rams. Then on top of sand and gravel is poured. After that, all poured concrete (with reinforcement).

So we made a tape melkozaglublenny basement, protected from the heaving of clay soils. The same gravel trap can be made to an existing foundation with its outer side.

Should we conclude from this that the pier foundation does not make sense? Of course not.

Pier foundation is good, where it erected on design is a very light frame type construction. A grillage role does the actual frame structure. In this case, do not need any tricks to gain the bar at the bottom of the well, its carrying capacity and it will be enough.

But if there is work to gain the columns and placing grillage – it is better not to spend the time and money, and go directly to the strip footing.

%

Base unit and classification

The device is the foundation or the elements – is primarily a base (the surface of contact with the ground), trim the base (upper parts of the building with the ground) and the body of the foundation. The foundation may be classified by material production – is rubble, rubble concrete, concrete and reinforced concrete. By way of manufacturing – is modular and monolithic foundation. As well as the type of work or construction – pile, a solid, columnar and strip foundations. The most widely used in current technology foundation – this strip foundations and columnar. Columnar used, usually in the construction of buildings with a light carrier component and do not require high costs.

The most common – is the foundation of ribbon used in the construction of virtually any building, including versions with very heavy walls. The foundation of wooden houses are usually buried shallow, but a stone house band must be recessed below the freezing depth.

Tape melkozaglublenny foundation.

Tape melkozaglublenny foundation is a concrete structure, which is the perimeter of the future house. The construction of this foundation is to create a trench, a sand cushion device, setting the formwork, reinforcement, pouring concrete.

Pile foundation

Pile foundation has the advantage of building on unstable soils. This base is used mainly for large and heavy structures. To transfer the load from the building to the ground using a pile. The foundation consists of piles and grillage uniting them

Solid foundation slab

The main advantage over other foundations, is its ability to perform in areas with high water table and unstable soils, due to the small and large burial area of??support. This foundation is used for all types of homes and a variety of grounds, ranging from ready-light to heavy shield and stone houses. The only difference in the thickness of the slab, the reinforcement scheme and add ribs.



This is partly because – for helping out on the rental money is really possible to live. Q – how to live and a place to live. Housing investments have always been the most profitable in times of falling markets, but prior to their collapses – as many financial experts say. At the level of narrow-minded investments in homes and flats look the “most beautiful”, but in fact they are not as profitable.

According to some respondents’ LOOK-real estate “market specialists, for such a long term return on investment in rental housing in Russia is easier to put money in a deposit account in a bank: profits today may reach up to 10% per annum, then there will be higher by almost 1.5 times.

“No country in the world do not have such high prices in comparison with per capita income in our. This is why calculating return on investment and benefit from rental housing is difficult» Plans to profit from renting it out are only those who have not invested in their own apartments, “real” money, and received a legacy of housing or as a result of greater exchange of apartments for less, gained. rent is such an object may no more than 200 euros a month.

- Of course, housing in the capital is always expensive and more expensive than anywhere else, but in no other country has no such high prices in comparison with per capita income in our. This is why calculating return on investment and benefit from rental housing is difficult to because of its inaccessibility mass ».

Latvia. Rents for such apartments will vary between 100-150 euros, while return on investment will be from 14 to 20 years, which is close to Moscow’s performance or even slightly lower. In Europe, many earn their living by playing on the difference between the cost of mortgages obtained for the acquisition of property and income derived from its lease. C level of the Russian mortgage rates on such income can not count.

Here plus the other – in the value of commercial property, which is lower than in Moscow is almost 5 times.

Faster residential investment pays off in Egypt and Panama. dollars (about 700-850 thousand rubles). Rent – about $ 250 a month, that is, payback would be 7.5 -9 years. At present, the “old continent” is considered a good income in calculating the amount of 5-8% of the purchase price per year. villa near the sea costs about 300-350 thousand € (200-250 square feet). euro. Totally at home really earn around 14-16 thousand EUR, excluding taxes. Return home is about 22-24 years. Today, however, these figures are quite arbitrary, since the real estate market is in crisis, and fell on landlords are not the best of times.

An example of the relation of “money-house-money” can be illustrated by a 1-room apartments of 38 “squares». This expert stated, “RIA-Novosti». euro (2.5 million rubles), which corresponds to 1.5 thousand



An example of the relation of “money-house-money” can be illustrated by a 1-room apartments of 38 “squares». According to experts of company “Inkom-real estate”, in July 2011, the average cost of hiring an economy class one-room apartment in the capital of Russia was 28,2 thousand rubles per month, per square meter cost an average of 137.3 thousand That is, payback was a little less than 16 years. For example, in Varna cost per “square” in an average of 1 thousand rent is such an object may no more than 200 euros a month.

Return – one of the main criteria of any business and the acquisition of property – is also a business, with a very specific and complicated. This is why calculating return on investment and benefit from rental housing is difficult»

“Of course, the starting point is the cost per square meter – says” LOOK-Real Estate “CEO of the consulting agency” B At present, the “old continent” is considered a good income in calculating the amount of 5-8% of the purchase price per year. Thus, on average, we can say that the apartments in Germany, Holland, Belgium, Austria, France pays off for 14-17 years ».

In Panama, the prices are quite high, as foreigners interested in only new housing, which distinguishes itself with its specific characteristics and quality of building materials and finishes. The lease is for rent by 1.2 – 1.5 thousand dollars a month. Money invested in buying an apartment in this country, back in less than 10 years.

In Spain, a square meter on the coast now costs an average of 1.7 – 2 thousand euro in large cities, especially in the most expensive Barcelona and Madrid – 3 – 3,5 thousand euro. villa near the sea costs about 300-350 thousand € (200-250 square feet). euro. city apartments with the situation a bit better – return on investment does not exceed 17 years. Today, however, these figures are quite arbitrary, since the real estate market is in crisis, and fell on landlords are not the best of times.

Faster residential investment pays off in Egypt and Panama. Rent – about $ 250 a month, that is, payback would be 7.5 -9 years.

In other countries, as is easily seen by applying the most simple, “rustic” payback formula (the ratio of purchase price to the annual income from her rental), you can find much more interesting, “real estate” investment options available funds. – Of course, housing in the capital is always expensive and more expensive than anywhere else, but in no other country has no such high prices in comparison with per capita income in our.

Director, Department of Residential Property Chesterton Ekaterina Thain in an interview, “RIA Novosti” reported another curious and sad because of its lack of detail in Russia. base is very simple – very low mortgage rates – at 3.5 – 4.5% per annum. This cost can be attributed to almost all the costs of property maintenance.

Cyprus. euro per square meter. rent such apartments can be in the 400-600 euros, which means that they can pay off in 8.5 – 13 years.

It might seem like everything is simple – to save money, buy an apartment house under construction, to make repairs, rent, and – all. This is partly because – for helping out on the rental money is really possible to live. Q – how to live and a place to live. And most importantly – how long it drags on the process of returning spent on real estate funds.

Housing investments have always been the most profitable in times of falling markets, but prior to their collapses – as many financial experts say. Which housing and where payback faster – this is the real estate market experts say. Director of Sales of luxury real estate company Penny Lane Realty Alexander Zima believes that payback period of capital lease apartments range from 13 to 24 years, on average – 20 years, and luxury housing pays off more slowly than housing both in business and economy. This expert stated, “RIA-Novosti».



Construction of foundation for any building is one of the most important tasks in the construction process. Before proceeding to the construction of the house, you need to think about the design of its foundation. After the foundation to a great extent determines the strength, reliability and longevity of the structure. Here do not have to hurry: the more accurately selected, designed and installed the support structure, the longer you serve the building without losing the appearance of the room and it will be comfortable. Many individual developers have a very vague idea of?? the method of calculating the base and in the process of construction is most often guided by the experience of neighbors or advice of “experienced” builders. Typically, this approach leads to sad results, ranging from door frames skewed in the winter and ending with the expanding vertical cracks on the facades of buildings.

I would like to focus on one very common misconception. At times, expecting to reduce the cost of construction, customers select a model or a finished project home. This is quite acceptable, does not go beyond common sense, after all, the foundations often do on borrowed drawings. And now so do not. It does not matter about the model or an exclusive project in question, in either case, the competence and thoroughness of the engineering-geological surveys, in which the properties of soils in the proposed construction site. Alas, you can bring a lot of instances where his neighbors are building fine, but a novice suddenly settles angle. So do not save a penny, check the soil.

The forces acting on the foundation.

Perhaps, in the homes of their friends have seen and will not open the door and twisted the porch, and the rickety porch, and brick houses – cracks in the walls. All this is the result of wrong choice of depth of the foundation. The fact that some types of soil in winter tend to slough, and the force of the swelling itself is so large that it is able to lift even a palace. But only if made by the foundation are illiterate.

Frost heave of soil, as experts call this phenomenon, due to the fact that during freezing of moist soil it grows in volume: silnopuchinistye ground – nearly 10%; slabopuchinistye – less than 5%. This occurs due to the fact that water increases in volume during freezing – up to 10%. Therefore, the more water in the soil, the more heaving. Thus, forest, standing on a strongly heaving soils, winter climbs to 10 – 15 cm relative to the summer level. Externally, it is not noticeable. But if the soil pile is packed with more than 3 m, the rise of ground in winter can be traced by marks made on this pile. Freezing manifested in the uneven ground picked up by the formation of ice lenses and layers, which, after thawing provoke decompression, erratic rainfall and decrease the strength of the base. The degree of heaving soils determined by the composition of soil, its porosity, and groundwater levels. For example, clay soils, shallow and silty sands are heaving soils, and coarse sand and gravel bottoms – to nepuchinistym.

Heaving phenomena – and insidious inconsiderate processes that occur in wet clay, silty soils and melkopeschanyh at their seasonal freezing. Does not matter they can not be that obvious to anyone even slightly versed in the construction of the developer. Many have realized this, finding a crack in the spring in a brick wall when he saw a country house or villa distorted wall frame construction.

Heaving phenomenon – is not only a large deformation of soil, but the enormous effort – in the tens of tons, which would lead to greater damage that can be avoided by laying the foundation below the freezing depth of soil. That is why before starting construction on heaving soils is necessary to clarify the calculated depth of freezing, adopted for the region.

By way of support on the ground the main types of foundations are four:

pile foundation

slab foundation

pier foundation

Strip foundations

Tape foundation

Strip foundation in individual building used very often. They can be monolithic and prefabricated foundation blocks of PBS (solid foundation blocks).

Tape the bases used in the construction of houses with heavy walls (concrete, stone, brick) and the reinforced concrete beams. Tape laying the foundations for all interior and exterior walls of the capital, with a cross-sectional shape is the same along the entire perimeter of the foundation. This type of foundation is required when a house settles basement or garage, or basement floor is assumed. It is advisable to strip foundations device and the risk of non-uniform deformation at the base of shallow burial, in which case they arrange continuous reinforced belt.

I would like to highlight a few very common errors. You are not seen vertical cracks in the place where the two buildings raznoetazhnyh (extensions) or cracks on the walls in places mate load-bearing walls and partitions. All this is the result of improperly constructed foundation. It is recommended to make installation of the foundation of a continuous strip of uniform width along the length of the walls, erected at the moment and walls that are only planned to be erected in the future. By doing this you insure yourself from the problem of joining the buildings when the decide to attach to an existing house porch or garage. It is recommended for a single building to use one type of foundation, even if the house raznoetazhny.

In the case of an inhomogeneous soil strata adding value is defined as the average within the depth of frost penetration

Sole strip foundation is usually placed at the lower depths of soil freezing. In dry or sandy soils can lay the foundation and above the freezing depth, but not less than 40-60 cm from ground level. On highly swelling soils and deep freezing conveyor foundations are fairly rare. Strip footing under the wall in the middle ground of compressibility are used as a rule, teams from the foundation blocks. The thickness of the sand bags are usually 40-60 cm, but should not be more than half the height of the foundation.

Manufacturing technology is simple strip foundations. They are characterized by massiveness, a considerable consumption of materials and high labor input.

To transfer the project in nature is broken down first overall axis of the building, then a breakdown of its intermediate axis. As indicated in the layout drawings of the linear and angular privyazochnym size (from a geodesic of support, the established dimensions of the plot) produced the longest balloon side of the building. Then determine the top corners of the building and its directions.

After transferring to the overall plot of axes, in places accessible to the entire construction process (beyond the development of the pit) Casement endure the point at which clog the metal pins or wooden stakes. A breakdown of the intermediate axes produce a device construction cast-offs of the building, which on its perimeter, parallel to the external walls at some distance from the line of the pit, hammered bars and secured to them the board horizontally. On the upper level mark the edge of the position of all axes of the foundations and walls, hammering nails into these places, which then pull on the wire (lace).

To move the axes of the building to the bottom of the pit at the points where the wires are placed on it plumb and determine all the points of the transport axes. Measured from the point of intersection of the axes on each side of half the width of the foundation, and for precast foundation – half the width of the concrete block, are the extreme points of the foundation.

Following the transfer of marks on the bottom of the pit axis and defining areas for laying the foundation elements of the wire is removed from the cast-offs, so they do not interfere with its construction. The horizontal alignment layer of sand or gravel under the foundation or leveling check water level.

The minimum thickness of the foundation depends on the material of the walls. For example, the minimum recommended size for reinforced concrete – 100 mm, concrete – 250 mm, rubble concrete – 350 mm and laying of natural stone – 500 mm. In addition, the width of the basement beneath the bearing walls at home is determined by the load-carrying capacity on the ground. On clay, loam pounds at a depth of 80 cm at the base load shall not exceed 1.5-2 kg/cm2. To speed up the construction of the basement is often used for foundation blocks of PBS. The advantages of using concrete blocks is to reduce installation time and the possibility of further loading of the foundation (brick walls and ceiling mounting). Drawback of this technique is that the great weight of foundation blocks (up to 2 tons.) Does not allow the construction of the foundation without lifting equipment. The blocks are assembled with a bandage, that is, subsequent series of vertical joints should not be over the seams underlying the series. Dressing and observe the ground near the outer and inner walls. If the soil bearing capacity is not sufficient to establish the foundation blocks for foundation slabs FL (base band), also known as base-cushions, having the width of the base from 0.6 to 3.2 m.

Monolithic strip foundations for constructing a subsurface layer of gravel, vtrambovannogo into the ground. Top layer of gravel fill with cement mortar to prevent leakage of grout from the casing. After this set of wooden formwork panels full height basement with two sides. The distance between the boards should match the width of the foundation of the future. In developing the trench by hand formwork can be very ground. Form panels raskreplyayut stakes, so they do not split when laying concrete. On top panels interconnected slats.

Once the foundation launched above zero (ground level), it is aligned with cement mortar, waterproofing and arranged on top of two layers of roofing mastic asphalt in order to prevent rising moisture from the load-bearing walls in the basement material bearing walls. The upper part of the strip foundation is usually a cap.

To protect the foundation from surface water and rain, just after its construction arrange blind area whose width depends on the materials used, but should not be less than the width of the eaves.

Foundations for a wooden house with a loft

The simplest reason for a wooden house with a loft – a MH-MR40 – melkozaglublenny band monolithic grillage 400h500mm. Such designs are called the foundation or basement foundation base, due to the fact that the monolithic part of the foundation does not deepens, and the base is compacted sand cushion. This design serves as the foundation for a wooden house or the foundation for a frame house, on condition that the building site is flat.

Option – MZ-M40-20 – melkozaglublenny band monolithic foundation 400h700mm. Grillage (tape) here deepens to 20cm into the ground, so the negative effect of shear forces caused by the swelling soil is minimal. It can be installed in areas with a heaving soils, subsidence soils, areas with high groundwater, areas with a slight incline (up to 5 degrees). This is the optimal design of the foundation for a wooden house made of beams, laminated veneer lumber, logs manual felling of logs up to 300mm.

If the soil conditions at the site are questionable: ground subsidence, groundwater level is high and land with a slope (more than 5 degrees), then the choice falls on the MZ-MU60-20 – monolithic reinforced tape melkozaglublenny foundation 600h200mm h400mm 300. This foundation is called “enhanced” because the “sole” foundation is twice the width of the basement. “Sole” is a monolithic reinforced tape width 60cm, height 20cm, which is installed monolithic reinforced base width 30cm and height 40cm – get “enhanced” with the union of design elements of plate and strip foundations. The device is a “base” to reduce pressure on the ground twice and reduce the risk of subsidence of the building. This type of foundation is recommended for sites with non-cohesive soils and a slope of more than 5 degrees.

SC-MP20-20 – melkozaglublennaya monolithic foundation slab 200 mm is recommended as a foundation for a wooden house with a loft, if ground conditions at the site complex, for example, saturated and non-cohesive soils, soils with organic impurities. These soils are not opposed to a point load (option pier foundation), so you want to decrease the pressure on the bottom. That the device is achieved by the foundation plate. Slab foundation – a solid foundation for the house from a tree on the weak water-saturated soils and subsidence.

For difficult soils plate foundation is a worthy alternative to W-BN15-150 – bored pile foundation buried. Buried piles can move the weight layers of soil to the house with a large carrying capacity. This foundation is also recommended for construction in areas with a slope of more than 5 degrees.

The foundation for the two-story wooden house

Optimal foundation for a two-story wooden house MZ-M50-20 – melkozaglublenny ribbon solid foundation 500h700mm. The design of robust and reliable due to the wide grillage – 50cm and 20cm for burial grillage. Such a foundation can be constructed in areas with high groundwater, areas with slopes up to 5 degrees.

If ground subsidence in the area, it makes sense to pay attention to the MH-MU80-20 – monolithic reinforced tape melkozaglublenny foundation size 800h200mm h500mm 400. The base is reinforced with a monolithic band width 80cm, height 20cm, yavlyayuscheyasya extended “sole” foundation, it is established solid base width 40cm and height 50cm. This design reduces pressure on the ground almost in half and allows you to build a variety of wooden houses in areas with a slope of more than 5 degrees and the weak subsiding soils with high water table.

Only in the area with a very complex ground makes sense to arrange MZ-MP20-20, MH-MT-30-20 – melkozaglublennuyu monolithic foundation slab for a two-story wooden house. Otherwise, costs will be impractical high. But for the saturated soil, soil with the elements of peat, organic inclusions, this option will be the foundation of one of the most reliable.

Another option for a complex of soil or land with a slope greater than 5 degrees – W-BN-25-150 – Recessed bored pile foundation grillage with 250mm. Piles transfer pressure from building in the denser layers of the soil. Such a foundation is considered a very robust design. Today it is widely used in the construction of low-rise buildings.

Another variation of the pile foundation – IPB-200 – Recessed pile foundation “IPB” from the grillage 200mm – piles made by IPB technology have expanded the base, so perfectly opposed consigns forces arising due to seasonal frost heave of soil and can withstand heavy loads of standing on these buildings.

Foundation for a bath made of wood

A simple foundation for light houses can serve MZ-MR30 – melkozaglublenny band monolithic grillage 300h400mm. This design is optimal as the foundation for a wooden house from a bar of thickness up to 150mm, can serve as the foundation for a wooden bath in areas with flat topography.

More rugged construction – MZ-M30-20 – melkozaglublenny ribbon solid foundation 300h600mm. Grillage in this embodiment, deepens to 20cm, so the plot may be a small bias (up to 5 degrees). This is the best option for the foundation of lumber at home, the foundation for a bath or a bath-house of logs, the foundation of a log home for manual felling of logs with a diameter up to 300mm.

If there is no certainty in the soil at the site, you can lay the foundation design MZ-MU60-20 – monolithic reinforced tape melkozaglublenny foundation 600h200mm + 300h400mm. This is a good foundation for a bath out of a log on the site with a slope of more than 5 degrees.

“Pillow” (preparation) is called a layer nepuchinistogo material which is placed under the sole of precast or cast-belt base.

Materials and technology:

Usually, the foundation suit “cushion” of sand and a large average grain size (0.25 – 2mm) and a density of 2.0 to 2.8 g / cm according to GOST 8736-93, as well as fine crushed stone, gravel or a mixture of sand and gravel. Preliminary cleaning ditches do not conduct because the “cushion” also serves as a leveling podsypku. Recommended thickness of the “cushion” of 10 to 40 cm It varies depending on the bearing capacity of foundation. Stack “cushion” layer, about po10 cm each layer, carefully shed water, and then rams rammers.

So: – the “cushion” of water-permeable (that is why it is not the freezing swells) nepuchinistyh monolithic materials under the tape is a constructive part of the foundation.

- If the “cushion” is broader foundation base, then this way, the insulation and drainage of soil near the foundation, the “cushion” acts like insulation. That’s right, the technology arranged by the “cushion” under the base plate or tape, along with the drainage system significantly extends the operational life of the foundation.

- Permeable sand, so sand “cushion” is itself a drainage layer, the outlet moisture away from the building foundation.

- “Cushion” helps to reduce the seasonal movements, subsidence of the basement in a period of frosts and thaws.

Construction of a country house. Foundation works. Layout of the foundation.

The foundation not only serves as a support building, but also a transitional element between rough and smooth ground planes boxes at home. Typically, the upper plane is the base foundation for the future layout of the walls of buildings. The layout of the basement starting from the top, when the builder determines the position of its upper surface and has dimensions of it counts down to the depth of the pit and the height of the base.

Excavation pit

Once the trench is dug about 2 / 3 of the depth, off-site set level and periodically check the depth. For this work will need an assistant. The first thing to do – “shoot” the height of the reference peg in relation to the new position of leveling. Since it is known to what depth should dig from the peg (1770 mm), then you simply add this amount to the reading, read by over a peg with the new base level set-up.

Periodically need to stop excavator to be able to check the level, how much more should deepen the bottom of the pit. To identify the high places, the depth of the bottom is checked at several points. In this way, as an approach to the desired depth of the excavator may make the bottom of the pit rather horizontal. The closer to the desired level, the more necessary to check the depth. Accuracy of leveling the bottom of the pit depends on the type of soil used technique and skill excavator.



In Spain, a square meter on the coast now costs an average of 1.7 – 2 thousand euro in large cities, especially in the most expensive Barcelona and Madrid – 3 – 3,5 thousand euro. Return home is about 22-24 years. Today, however, these figures are quite arbitrary, since the real estate market is in crisis, and fell on landlords are not the best of times. Q – how to live and a place to live.

“Of course, the starting point is the cost per square meter – says” LOOK-Real Estate “CEO of the consulting agency” B – But must take into account the taxes that are all over the world pay landlords in contrast to Russia. Tax on rental housing is equated in Europe, such as income, so can “eat” up to 20% from those obtained from the sums collected from housing. At present, the “old continent” is considered a good income in calculating the amount of 5-8% of the purchase price per year. This cost can be attributed to almost all the costs of property maintenance.

In other countries, as is easily seen by applying the most simple, “rustic” payback formula (the ratio of purchase price to the annual income from her rental), you can find much more interesting, “real estate” investment options available funds.

In Europe, many earn their living by playing on the difference between the cost of mortgages obtained for the acquisition of property and income derived from its lease. base is very simple – very low mortgage rates – at 3.5 – 4.5% per annum.

“No country in the world do not have such high prices in comparison with per capita income in our. This is why calculating return on investment and benefit from rental housing is difficult» The lease is for rent by 1.2 – 1.5 thousand dollars a month. Housing investments have always been the most profitable in times of falling markets, but prior to their collapses – as many financial experts say. rubles per month, per square meter cost an average of 137.3 thousand That is, payback was a little less than 16 years.

Cyprus. rent such apartments can be in the 400-600 euros, which means that they can pay off in 8.5 – 13 years. Average cost 1-bedroom apartment in Hurghada is 25-30 thousand

Latvia. euro for 38 meter one-bedroom apartment (on average exactly one million rubles).



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