Archive for the 'Construction technology' Category

Quality and cost of building a house. Estimates of construction and the real cost of building a country house.

The quality of construction work

Building a country house – a complex process that requires professional performers. Quality of construction has always been a burning issue, which is particularly exacerbated when this activity began to engage people without special training. Changed the appearance and customer The developer.

In the end, in addition to moral damages and the customer is considerable material losses.

Major companies are trying to be composed of permanent “backbone” of experienced engineers and technicians that provide the organization and supervision of all construction processes.

What can we say about the uncontrolled “samostroy” country houses with the help of hired laborers or young construction firms, have neither the experience nor the base or even an experienced specialist. Strength and reliability of their homes not care. There is a contradiction of interests of the parties.

Not only does it by talking about finances and everything begins. This is a gross error of customers, which in dalneishem leads to inflated estimates. Experience has shown that their costs often reach the amount in excess of the required one and a half twice.

Custom designing a country house

So spend a little analysis on the topic “so, how much can really be a qualitative development of individual project at home?” For individual design is not that simple. The price range for the services of architects in the Moscow region starts from 500 rubles / sqm and reaches up to 2000 euro / sq.m. Which of them is closer to the real price. And it depends on what you mean by the individual project at home. Our builders have shown such individual house designs, and that $ 100 / sqm there will be many. It all depends on what is included in the design documentation of the individual project at home.

First we need to agree on the size of the house, floor plans, facade design solutions. To work through these issues takes at least two – three weeks. Next comes the development of assemblies, circuits, assembly and load calculation on bearing elements of construction at home. This phase of work is at least 1 month and to address these problems involve a specialist designer. Further information is all project documentation in the general drawings and tables with all the necessary specifications. Total to develop the architectural and constructive parts of the individual project at home must be at least two months. Average value of an experienced architect in Moscow no less than 4000 rubles / day.

Select a model project at home

Buying a model project in the online store ready-made designs of houses do not recommend you focus your attention on the cost of the project documentation. First of all, you do not buy potatoes at the market, and project your future home, looking for their own benefit in 3000-4000 rubles without regard for other criteria (layout and facade solutions used building materials, etc.) you are doing very lightly. Secondly, there are many Internet scams that steal intellectual property of others (and any model project – is its author, to whom belong all rights to it) and implement it in an extremely truncated or incomplete kit, which is bad both for the builders, and for the developer. Since the legal and financial liability for copyright infringement will be personally it.

Estimates and actual construction costs at home

Definition of the real cost of building homes in current market conditions – it is very difficult.

By the old rules was estimated project organization.

Lack of a single regulatory framework of commercial pricing, a huge difference in skill level quantity surveyors have resulted in many forms and methods of determining the cost of construction.

Definition of labor-intensive methods of construction cost home

Here the foreman calls the amount of wages on the basis of the enlarged figure the cost of work for 1 m of the total area. Primitive method, but small amounts of construction works is acceptable.

Quality construction country house (wood frame)

Now we gradually gets to the very basic question, what is the actual construction cost of 1 sq.m. Home.

Build Time boxes at home on the draft AR 176-37 will be at least 3 months. Given that the construction team will be involved of 5 persons. Current indicators on vacancies and offers construction companies indicate that the minimum wage low-skilled labor force is not less than 25 000 rubles / month. Even assuming that you build a house these malokvalifitsirpovannye builders (which we you really do not recommend), the budget amount of wages not less than 500, 000 rubles. But these low-skilled fellow who has to manage and control that they still build something resembling a house. Even with this scheme we find that the cost of construction will be 740, 000 rubles. To be honest, that will build these comrades will not be home in the conventional sense of the word, but it is not important in this article.

Conclusion: The cost of building a box at home from aerated concrete project AR 176-37 can not cost less than 16, 000 rubles / sqm. A priori.

And the cost of construction quality boxes at home will be at least 18, 000 rubles per 1 sq. M.

So why very often in sentences construction companies, we see the numbers 11000-12000 euro / sq.m. The figure below 11 000 USD / sq.m. We do not want to even comment, it’s just unreal.

What is the developer can win, saving the construction budget? Device lite design foundation, the minimum number of load-bearing walls, simple shapes and roof of the house, simple plan – all of which can reduce the cost of building a country house by 30%.

This is the real minimum price of building a box house of bricks, aerated concrete and foam concrete blocks in 2011

Walls and partitions in the house

Outer walls of the house, we assume, will be made of concrete blocks 400 mm thick.

Overlap

In the project home two floors (basement and first floor). The volume of solid work approx 50 cubic meters will be You will need to formwork, reinforcement, waterproofing, concrete, reinforcement, inserts, expanded polystyrene.

Total costs of materials for devices of two monolithic slabs will be – no less than 350 000 rubles.

Ring anchors and reinforcing belt

When building a house of concrete blocks to anchor the device under the ring of concrete floors and roof system mauelraty. Same as that of a monolithic slabs, bearings, valves, concrete formwork. The volume of solid work on this project will amount to approximately 12 cubic meters

The roof of the house

Total costs of materials for device insulated with mansard roof will be finishing coating metal tile – 385000 rubles. Foundation

Subject to regulatory parameters we obtain the following value of the materials used on the tape device buried reinforced foundations: 635 000 rubles in prices of spring 2011. If we need a drainage device, the material cost increase by 200, 000 rubles.

Foundation walls + roof + = 1 904 000 rubles

We had a very approximate, a rough calculation that does not take into account the cost of fixing and mounting supplies, loading-unloading activities and the delivery of construction materials, so knowing the characteristics of the construction process, the cost of building materials can be safely increased by 10% at least.

Dreams Come True

Breath of spring all the clearer, the air warms up by leaps and bounds, already visible in some places land cover, which means that soon it’s time to active construction. And, as always at the beginning of each construction season, we have prepared a short memo to the private builder, who hopefully will help them build their country home with minimal problems.



Pendant plumbing systems installation

Spectrum of systems installation wide. With their help, console mounted (suspended), sinks, toilets, bidets, urinaly (urinals). Communication with hidden behind a partition made of plasterboard. Outside her trim tiles, then mount the actual sanitary ceramics, and if the toilet or urinal, and set the panel flush. Last played an important role, since it is simultaneously a hatch for servicing domestic fixtures flush toilet. Except through the mounting hole into the panel did not get – do not break down the same wall.

Many manufacturers equip their models further sound-absorbing pads.

Retractable foot modules are usually adjustable in height, so fixing the toilet is easy to deduce the desired level as in the case of installation of the finished screed, and with regard to future ties. Some assembly modules are designed to be installed under screed, and their legs shorter.

Such a tank mounted on the stage of rough work to the final finishing of the walls. Usually it is arranged so as to make it easy and convenient to finish – textured surface or a special lattice well kept tile adhesive. Control the operation of the reservoir, as in the case of systems installed, with the help of the flush on the wall.

Embedded System Installation Mixer (Germany) Hansgrohe iBox Universal

Universality of the system is that with it mounted and single-lever mixers and thermostats, in addition, mounting diameter iBox Universal is 3 / 4 inches, so you can bring water using a liner 3 / 4 or 1 / 1 inches (with adapter).

If the distance to the wall than 80 mm, stud-use extension cords. There is a way out and if for any reason, the depth of recess box is less than 80 mm. Insert can be round or square – depending on the shape of the panel mounted faucet or a thermostat.

Y box four mounting holes, two of which are designed to supply hot and cold water, the other two – to remove the mixed water. IBox Universal is capable of handling two lines – the upper and hand shower or a shower and spout for filling the tub. If only one line (for example, without spout faucet in the shower), the unused hole is plugged.

Embedded System Installation Mixer (Germany) Flexx.Boxx

In fact, after installing Flexx. Boxx simply lock the front panel on it, and faucet is almost ready for use.

A combination of boxes and mixing unit greatly simplifies the installation itself and reduces installation time. System has been assembled and tested for leaks at the plant, so additional control is required. Universal mount allows mounting Flexx. Boxx and using the system installation, and inside the wall (a niche), and on the wall. Box, made of elastomer (a highly elastic resin), is waterproof and provides good sound insulation. Resilient annular folds on the back of the case allow tight squeeze Flexx. Boxx even to uneven ground.

Box protective cover not only protects the inner parts of the system from damage and ingress of debris, but also helps to orient the installation – at its surface markings affixed top and bottom boxes, places to connect the hot and cold water. Outside on the body of the arrow is drawn to indicate the maximum and minimum depth of installation Flexx.Boxx.

Mounting Module for wall-hung WC (Finland)

Module mounting IDO 91 371 – new year 2008 from the IDO, the famous Finnish manufacturer of sanitary ware. In this system, the installation was first implemented technology Fresh WC – built-in air freshener for toilet bowl. P anee company IDO used it in outdoor toilets, compact, equipped with their own cisterns. Now use Fresh WC and it was possible for hanging closets. REFRESHING tablet placed in a special cartridge, and flush with each part of it, dissolving the water enters the toilet bowl.

V module assembly welded steel frame, painted by powder coating gray-green color. It is mounted to the floor in four points, either on the floor and the wall.

The third panel flush works by pneumatics. It can be installed in any convenient place walls, but a short distance from the tank. However, such a panel is not compatible with Fresh WC.

Mounting Module for wall-hung WC (Germany) TECE

This module was designed specifically for those cases where it is impossible to attach to the wall system installation – for example, defective walls.

Rugged welded steel frame, thanks to a special perforation is suitable for installation in a special steel profiles TECE. Props are nominated for a length of 20 cm, which allows the module to the screed and adjust the height of the console toilet above floor level. When mounting support, not “drop out” and locked in position by a special mechanism.

After the descent of water in the reservoir remains small amount for the additional runoff. Valve for water connection made of brass and is mounted in the tank.

You may want to establish an electronic panel flush with an infrared sensor that operates on AC power or battery 6.

These panels are made in the affiliate program TECE and companies producing faucets and bathroom accessories, so each panel is made in the same style with any from the collections of Hansa, Kludi, Oras, JADO, and other famous brands.

Viega Eco Plus

Installation wall-hung WC module (Germany)

Usually in a corner mount a standard “straight” modules with special corner brackets are fixed at an angle of 45 degrees to the wall. On the one hand, it is convenient, since this module is universal, the other – it is focused on “flat” near-wall installation, which means the tank for this model is broad and flat, which affects the size of the module. Often, however, Wall mounted toilets due to the need to save space in the bathroom, in which case a specialized corner model can be very useful. Because the width of Eco Plus is only 47 cm

B ydvizhnye lower supports are equipped with latches that prevent the spontaneous change in their position.

The tank is also adapted for the use of angular – the form it resembles a three-sided prism. With this design, having a sufficient volume, it is less than the width of the standard models of wall marks Viega. B

A distinctive feature of the modules Viega – the ability to change the height of the toilet above the floor without the use of sliding bearings. To this end, the frame includes four holes for no pins (two for each of the standard distance between studs – 18 and 23 cm), and twelve – four on each version of the height (33, 35 and 37 cm).

For a module developed three series of dual-mode panels flush. The first of these, Visign for Life – a panel of classic design, made of plastic or metal, and metal in a vandal-resistant and – for the public toilets.

Pendant plumbing systems installation

Spectrum of systems installation wide. With their help, console mounted (suspended), sinks, toilets, bidets, urinaly (urinals). Communication with hidden behind a partition made of plasterboard. Outside her trim tiles, then mount the actual sanitary ceramics, and if the toilet or urinal, and set the panel flush. Last played an important role, since it is simultaneously a hatch for servicing domestic fixtures flush toilet. Except through the mounting hole into the panel did not get – do not break down the same wall.

Many manufacturers equip their models further sound-absorbing pads.

Retractable foot modules are usually adjustable in height, so fixing the toilet is easy to deduce the desired level as in the case of installation of the finished screed, and with regard to future ties. Some assembly modules are designed to be installed under screed, and their legs shorter.

Such a tank mounted on the stage of rough work to the final finishing of the walls. Usually it is arranged so as to make it easy and convenient to finish – textured surface or a special lattice well kept tile adhesive. Control the operation of the reservoir, as in the case of systems installed, with the help of the flush on the wall.

Embedded System Installation Mixer (Germany) Hansgrohe iBox Universal

Universality of the system is that with it mounted and single-lever mixers and thermostats, in addition, mounting diameter iBox Universal is 3 / 4 inches, so you can bring water using a liner 3 / 4 or 1 / 1 inches (with adapter).

If the distance to the wall than 80 mm, stud-use extension cords. There is a way out and if for any reason, the depth of recess box is less than 80 mm. Insert can be round or square – depending on the shape of the panel mounted faucet or a thermostat.

Y box four mounting holes, two of which are designed to supply hot and cold water, the other two – to remove the mixed water. IBox Universal is capable of handling two lines – the upper and hand shower or a shower and spout for filling the tub. If only one line (for example, without spout faucet in the shower), the unused hole is plugged.

Embedded System Installation Mixer (Germany) Flexx.Boxx

In fact, after installing Flexx. Boxx simply lock the front panel on it, and faucet is almost ready for use.

A combination of boxes and mixing unit greatly simplifies the installation itself and reduces installation time. System has been assembled and tested for leaks at the plant, so additional control is required. Universal mount allows mounting Flexx. Boxx and using the system installation, and inside the wall (a niche), and on the wall. Box, made of elastomer (a highly elastic resin), is waterproof and provides good sound insulation. Resilient annular folds on the back of the case allow tight squeeze Flexx. Boxx even to uneven ground.

Box protective cover not only protects the inner parts of the system from damage and ingress of debris, but also helps to orient the installation – at its surface markings affixed top and bottom boxes, places to connect the hot and cold water. Outside on the body of the arrow is drawn to indicate the maximum and minimum depth of installation Flexx.Boxx.

Mounting Module for wall-hung WC (Finland)

Module mounting IDO 91 371 – new year 2008 from the IDO, the famous Finnish manufacturer of sanitary ware. In this system, the installation was first implemented technology Fresh WC – built-in air freshener for toilet bowl. P anee company IDO used it in outdoor toilets, compact, equipped with their own cisterns. Now use Fresh WC and it was possible for hanging closets. REFRESHING tablet placed in a special cartridge, and flush with each part of it, dissolving the water enters the toilet bowl.

V module assembly welded steel frame, painted by powder coating gray-green color. It is mounted to the floor in four points, either on the floor and the wall.

The third panel flush works by pneumatics. It can be installed in any convenient place walls, but a short distance from the tank. However, such a panel is not compatible with Fresh WC.

Mounting Module for wall-hung WC (Germany) TECE

This module was designed specifically for those cases where it is impossible to attach to the wall system installation – for example, defective walls.

Rugged welded steel frame, thanks to a special perforation is suitable for installation in a special steel profiles TECE. Props are nominated for a length of 20 cm, which allows the module to the screed and adjust the height of the console toilet above floor level. When mounting support, not “drop out” and locked in position by a special mechanism.

After the descent of water in the reservoir remains small amount for the additional runoff. Valve for water connection made of brass and is mounted in the tank.

You may want to establish an electronic panel flush with an infrared sensor that operates on AC power or battery 6.

These panels are made in the affiliate program TECE and companies producing faucets and bathroom accessories, so each panel is made in the same style with any from the collections of Hansa, Kludi, Oras, JADO, and other famous brands.

Viega Eco Plus

Installation wall-hung WC module (Germany)

Usually in a corner mount a standard “straight” modules with special corner brackets are fixed at an angle of 45 degrees to the wall. On the one hand, it is convenient, since this module is universal, the other – it is focused on “flat” near-wall installation, which means the tank for this model is broad and flat, which affects the size of the module. Often, however, Wall mounted toilets due to the need to save space in the bathroom, in which case a specialized corner model can be very useful. Because the width of Eco Plus is only 47 cm

B ydvizhnye lower supports are equipped with latches that prevent the spontaneous change in their position.

The tank is also adapted for the use of angular – the form it resembles a three-sided prism. With this design, having a sufficient volume, it is less than the width of the standard models of wall marks Viega. B

A distinctive feature of the modules Viega – the ability to change the height of the toilet above the floor without the use of sliding bearings. To this end, the frame includes four holes for no pins (two for each of the standard distance between studs – 18 and 23 cm), and twelve – four on each version of the height (33, 35 and 37 cm).

For a module developed three series of dual-mode panels flush. The first of these, Visign for Life – a panel of classic design, made of plastic or metal, and metal in a vandal-resistant and – for the public toilets.



Wood-polymer composites

Ceramic tile and porcelain

Ceramic tile and granite in the lead when it comes to decorating the kitchen floor.

Natural wood

Natural wood exudes natural warmth, so the system “warm floor” is probably not necessary.

Parquet should be selected from a large thick active layer, which will extend the life of the coating. Preferred type of wood that have superior resistance to moisture, such as oak or teak. Also for the kitchen facilities is desirable to increase the number of layers of lacquer to five.

Laminate

The main advantage of laminated flooring is its cost – from 250-300 rubles. Per square meter.

Risk factors for this choice – the relative fragility of the material (on average – up to 10 years) and susceptibility to water. Ends meet – his weak spot, so when laying manufacturers strongly recommend that lubricate joints interlocks with special sealants. Thus, the water will not penetrate into the edge, and the laminate is not deformed.



Beginning of the XXI century is characterized by the richness and diversity of styles in urban architecture, from classical to avant-garde. Now you can find the building most different designs: cylindrical, resembling a medieval castles, palaces and even ships. N

What to look for

According to the experts, subject to the technological requirements of PVC windows have the same operating parameters, regardless of its shape and features of the building. Matter and dates of the Order, if they are month (or “yet unknown”), you are likely to engage in the manufacture of windows will be another contractor.

Price is calculated for each case individually based on the complexity of execution and order of specificity.

An experienced producer will always be guided by these restrictions.

Modern possibilities of the construction industry can realize when building a house almost any fantasy. This in its operational properties of buildings and structures of unusual shape does not give standard solutions. Manufacturing process windows of irregular shape imposes certain restrictions on their parameters. Thus, in contrast to the rectilinear frame curved element can not be strengthened reinforcement (steel insert inside the profile). Therefore, the diameter of opening the “round” windows with single-chamber glazing can not exceed 120 cm, and its design must involve horizontal or vertical reinforced impost (jumper), to which are attached loop. In general, the arch will be proportional to the size and diameter required if its height does not exceed half the width of the window. In recent years all over the world become increasingly popular at home, having a cylindrical shape or a polyhedron.

Windows to “convex” walls

Often in round houses made panoramic windows, while windows are large and consist of many straight segments. «Today is the most common solution was – says Leo Minullin, director of advancement Group of Companies” Propleks. ” – Windows, in this case is made of small linear segments joined at an angle. There were times when installers linking the sizes up to 25 items glazing on each floor, with no significant rise in construction ».

However, often do a combination of linear segments window profile can not be: there is a need to smooth curves (arched design, etc.), as may be unusual not only design buildings, but also its design. And it’s important for a variety of buildings such as the modernization of the old city buildings.

Odd-shaped windows in their properties are not inferior to the rectangular designs, but the production of these windows can take a long time

How to make “round window”

Production of rounded wood profile is even more laborious. First, make a polygon glued blank, and then it “smooths” a milling machine.

H The heated and softened, but not lost its structure is easily curved profile along the conductor, taking the desired shape as well, cools, gets the old stiffness.

For example, to produce a rounded frame made of aluminum profile, often used for glazing conservatories and balconies, it has to be bent by cold-rolling roller on special machines. This is a fairly expensive equipment, which is reflected in the price of the final product: it will be about 2.5 times more expensive than the rectangular design. In addition, as a rule, the minimum bending radius must be at least triple the height of the profile.

According to experts, the best material for the manufacture of window frames with nonlinear elements is PVC profile. In this case, do not need a special expensive equipment and bending elements of the window assembly occurs before our eyes.

Decisive importance here are the properties of the material of which make the frame translucent design.



Tricks Installation

Ways fixing roller, there are three: bill, built and combined. The first is most vulnerable from a security standpoint. Therefore, it is usually chosen if the house is already built and there is no possibility of a “wall up” shutters on the wall. N

«Smart” windows

Mechanisms for manual control of the customer cost is cheaper, but in use they are not as convenient as electric. Last shutters allow to manage with a switch or remote control.

To control shutters has become more simple and comfortable, you can equip them with all sorts of extras. For example, a timer, which will give the command to close or open windows in a given time.

Usual set of accessories now has three such pins. Also included is an anti-theft striking plate.

K static, electric roller system is often associated with fire detectors. At operation of a sensor rollers are lifted, giving way to people and letting the smoke.

No special care do not require shutters. Wash and clean them easily enough. To maintain the product in the “alert” fairly clean canvas and the guides tire from dirt, ice (in winter), as well as various foreign objects – small stones, leaves, twigs, etc. Free the system from the ice can be, doing light strokes on a canvas roller blinds with a soft object outside or inside.

The most demanded by consumers of aluminum shutters

Grid – this is not always tightly welded iron. Grids can be hinged, with one or two doors that open like doors.

Removable grid reliable, but install them and take off pretty hard, well, if we have to do every season. So naturally, the most popular design remains stationary grid – the most simple and reliable.

Modern window protects us from the dust, noise, dust and drafts. But, unfortunately, it is not always able to protect the house from evil people – simply put, thieves and robbers.

Forged elements make the grid pattern is much more interesting and varied

The fact that the installation of the light aperture is reduced by the width of the window box and side rails. As a result of the usable area of?? the window is lost.

To avoid such an outcome by selecting a combination mounting technology. In this case, the guides are built into the wall and have the top box (again, an option for single family houses).

Installation of roller shutters preferably carried out in a time when the openings in the house ready, but the doors and windows are not installed. Way-mounted design will be especially strong and aesthetically “attractive». Under construction box, rails, and all the wiring hidden in the building envelope, where they will actually be available to attackers.

O

Various painting shutters

Large wall thickness (1-1.5 mm) and the presence of transverse ribs can use these shutters even on the first floor of apartment buildings, as well as separately standing cottages.



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