Archive for the 'Country building' Category

Jul

20

It is hard to imagine a modern residential interior without windows. This is one of the most ancient materials, invented by man, is used today in virtually all elements of decoration. In particular, in recent years have become very popular to use the glass doors – beautiful and original solution for a variety of styles.

Technology

Frameless models are made of tempered glass with thickness of 8-12 mm. However, there are limitations in size. Wide glasses than 120 cm and 250 cm in height more difficult to manufacture one-piece.

Installation and operation

Thanks to modern technology the glass doors have acquired the status of safe, and are now widely used even in children.

Sheets for doors are made, usually made of tempered glass: before quench the product in the oven, it makes all the necessary holes and cutouts for fittings, because after the heat treatment, tempered glass can not be cut, and as a warp. Therefore, when ordering it is important to know the exact dimensions of the future product, which after manufacture is not fit the aperture.

Color schemes are various accessories: various kinds of steel, carbon fiber, titanium, copper, gold, and the use of Swarovski crystals and diamonds on the reservation. C Sliding design

Technical capabilities of today’s sliding mechanism allows to cover openings of up to 6 meters in width.

Engraving creates a contour image with lines of varying depth and width, whose faces are polished.

New Market – special hardware that allows a door 100% transparency.

Interior walls «Alstem» with stained glass «Amadeus», factory Alstem, Italy. Volumetric image printed on the glass of the new English technology using polymers

Types of treatment

In the trend – haytekovskom door designs, painted in bright juicy, even a “synthetic” colors.

O Between two clear glass inserts and colored mirror film, as well as exclusive fabrics and even LEDs. Due to unusual properties such interior doors and partitions are able to change the functionality of the room, transforming it in the open, then the private area.



We are becoming increasingly demanding in their home.

House, and as a person in need of reliable protection from the cold.

Here are our main arguments:

Walls freeze – freezing point is inside the building envelope.

There are several options for thermal insulation of buildings.

Heater is mounted on the outside wall.

Insulation outside the wall – Ideal for all types of buildings.

The outer insulation of the freezing point is in the thickness of the insulating material and the wall does not freeze, so – is not subject to the ravages of the environment. Cladding accumulates (stores) the heat. External heating system is suitable as well for the new facilities of modern construction and for renovation of old buildings. Insulation is located inside the wall.

Insulation inside the walls – this is an option for already constructed buildings.

Base of the wall, usually made of concrete or aerated concrete, then mounted heater and surrounded by face brick.

Insulation located inside the premises.

Cladding can not store heat, the room is heated rapidly, but also quickly and cools down. In addition, the area between the insulation and the wall of a zone of condensation of water vapor, which can lead to mold. Reduced internal volume of space.

As the insulation is possible to use expanded polystyrene slabs and slabs of mineral wool of varying thickness.

To date, the market offers quite a few specialized insulation materials for outdoor insulation of houses, so you can choose a heater at any taste.



In practice, the cost base of approximately 15-25% of the boxes at home. But the cost to rework the foundation properly executed already reached 40-60% of the total cost and may be even higher if the house itself suffered extensive damage.

At the base of the foundation should be packed continental soil and its depth of burial can not well be less than 60 70 cm layer of sediments to reduce the relatively loose soil, lies directly under the foundation, it is recommended to replace the more dense and therefore less compressible. In this case, make a bed of coarse or medium sand without clay inclusions. Compacted sand covered with rammers.

The forces acting on the foundation.

Perhaps, in the homes of their friends have seen and will not open the door and twisted the porch, and the rickety porch, and brick houses – cracks in the walls. All this is the result of wrong choice of depth of the foundation. The fact that some types of soil in winter tend to slough, and the force of the swelling itself is so large that it is able to lift even a palace. But only if made by the foundation are illiterate.

Heaving phenomena – and insidious inconsiderate processes that occur in wet clay, silty soils and melkopeschanyh at their seasonal freezing. Does not matter they can not be that obvious to anyone even slightly versed in the construction of the developer. Many have realized this, finding a crack in the spring in a brick wall when he saw a country house or villa distorted wall frame construction.

Heaving phenomenon – is not only a large deformation of soil, but the enormous effort – in the tens of tons, which would lead to greater damage that can be avoided by laying the foundation below the freezing depth of soil. That is why before starting construction on heaving soils is necessary to clarify the calculated depth of freezing, adopted for the region.

Frost heave of soil, as experts call this phenomenon, due to the fact that during freezing of moist soil it grows in volume: silnopuchinistye ground – nearly 10%; slabopuchinistye – less than 5%. This occurs due to the fact that water increases in volume during freezing – up to 10%. Therefore, the more water in the soil, the more heaving. Thus, forest, standing on a strongly heaving soils, winter climbs to 10 – 15 cm relative to the summer level. Externally, it is not noticeable. But if the soil pile is packed with more than 3 m, the rise of ground in winter can be traced by marks made on this pile. Freezing manifested in the uneven ground picked up by the formation of ice lenses and layers, which, after thawing provoke decompression, erratic rainfall and decrease the strength of the base. The degree of heaving soils determined by the composition of soil, its porosity, and groundwater levels. For example, clay soils, shallow and silty sands are heaving soils, and coarse sand and gravel bottoms – to nepuchinistym.

The depth of soil freezing.

The estimated depth of freezing is taken for the coldest winter period, in the region, with a maximum soil moisture and lack of snow cover. Of course, the real depth of frost penetration is somewhat less than estimated. But the fact she rated in order to avoid possible destruction at home at the most unfortunate of circumstances, the proposed weather.

Favorable foundation for the future can be considered the conditions under which the depth of frost penetration is less than the depth of groundwater. Conversely, the conditions when the depth of frost penetration exceeds the depth of groundwater, are among the most difficult. Often, the customer is tempted to abandon the costly capital base unit, recessed below freezing (for the Moscow region is more than 1.4 m), and to confine light option, widely spread in many foreign countries. Savings significant, but in future this may lead to very disastrous results. Moscow – not Italy or Germany, or even Finland. In Western Europe, in conditions of mild (compared to ours) climate, depth of soil freezing almost never reach the ground water level, so the problem of blistering winter there is almost no soil.

The construction of the foundations with shallow depth of burial in the central part of Russia – a serious mistake. Malozaglublennye foundations are acceptable only for light buildings (villas, frame-panel houses, wooden houses, garages and outbuildings).

The ground water level and chemical composition.

The ground water level depends primarily on the variety of soils. For example, for the Moscow region is typical of loam. It differs in low permeability and non-uniform depth of the aquifer. Quaintness underground “landscape” makes precede any construction holding hydrogeological investigations. If the zone of capillary rise would be any obstacle (eg, concrete foundation built cottage), groundwater sources will wash it. Spring melting of snow and ice, summer rain, a fine autumn rain, so dear poet’s heart – all this creates an additional risk of flooding of the cottage.

If the groundwater level is high and they capture the depth of freezing, there may be two ways out of this situation:

Take this into consideration when choosing a reliable version of the foundation, regardless of the increase in estimates for construction;

Carry out works, providing a guaranteed reduction in groundwater levels

When designing the foundation it is desirable to take into account such important factors as the chemical composition of groundwater. The most aggressive environment creates a water with high sulfate content, the impact of which lead to the destruction of the concrete. Began the process of destruction can easily be identified by the appearance on the surface of the concrete coating of white plaster, and then – on the formation of delamination (as after freezing). To work in hostile environments of this type should be used sulphate cement. Often at individual structural elements of the house are the white spots of the crystalline form – the so-called efflorescence. Salt haze not only spoils the appearance of the facilities, but also suggest that circulates in the construction of the moisture penetration, for example, from the ground.

By way of support on the ground the main types of foundations are four:

pile foundation

pier foundation

slab foundation

Strip foundations

The foundation for a brick house

Solid foundation for a brick house can serve MZ-MP30-20 – Melkozaglublennaya monolithic slab 300mm. Slab foundation maintains good load bearing walls of buildings, reducing pressure on the ground, and evenly transfers the pressure on the subgrade. This foundation is recommended for construction on sandy soils.

A good design solution for the foundation of a brick building can be – Recessed band monolithic W-M50-120 penetration at 120cm, W-M50-150 penetration at 150cm, W-M50-180 – 180cm for penetration. Burying the foundation for 150cm, 180cm can arrange for such a house basement or ground floor.

At sites with poor soils can be arranged Z-BN25-150 – Recessed bored pile foundation with a grillage, the pile diameter 250mm withstand the weight of a brick building. The cost of pile foundation is relatively smaller than in deep foundations, but the device can not be a basement.

Variation of pile foundation for a brick house – Recessed with pile foundation grillage IPB-200 200mm diameter IPB-250 250mm diameter. Enlarged base piles ideal design solution for the heavy brick buildings, pile foundation for the “IPB” resists the forces of the seasonal frost heaving of the soil and can be arranged in the area and the snow.

Foundation for light structures

As a foundation for light structures are recommended MZ-MP20 – Band monolithic grillage 200h300mm, device monolithic grillage at the site of the slope is not possible, therefore, the foundation base is used as the foundation for the greenhouses, the foundation for the fences, the foundation for a toilet and shower on the flat areas.

Another option is the foundation for light structures MZ-M20-20 – melkozaglublenny band monolithic foundation 200h500mm size. This design is reliable to the vertical displacements due to buried. This is a solid foundation for the terraces, the foundation for arbors, the foundation for the garage, even if the construction is on a site with some bias.

Finally, a stronger version of the foundation for light structures – MZ-MU40-20 – monolithic reinforced tape melkozaglublenny foundation size 400h200mm + 200h300mm as the foundation for the panel house, the foundation for households. block, the foundation for a garden home, built in areas with a slope of more than 5 degrees and non-cohesive grounds.

Foundation for a bath made of wood

A simple foundation for light houses can serve MZ-MR30 – melkozaglublenny band monolithic grillage 300h400mm. This design is optimal as the foundation for a wooden house from a bar of thickness up to 150mm, can serve as the foundation for a wooden bath in areas with flat topography.

More rugged construction – MZ-M30-20 – melkozaglublenny ribbon solid foundation 300h600mm. Grillage in this embodiment, deepens to 20cm, so the plot may be a small bias (up to 5 degrees). This is the best option for the foundation of lumber at home, the foundation for a bath or a bath-house of logs, the foundation of a log home for manual felling of logs with a diameter up to 300mm.

If there is no certainty in the soil at the site, you can lay the foundation design MZ-MU60-20 – monolithic reinforced tape melkozaglublenny foundation 600h200mm + 300h400mm. This is a good foundation for a bath out of a log on the site with a slope of more than 5 degrees.



Construction of foundation for any building is one of the most important tasks in the construction process. Before proceeding to the construction of the house, you need to think about the design of its foundation. After the foundation to a great extent determines the strength, reliability and longevity of the structure. Here do not have to hurry: the more accurately selected, designed and installed the support structure, the longer you serve the building without losing the appearance of the room and it will be comfortable. Many individual developers have a very vague idea of?? the method of calculating the base and in the process of construction is most often guided by the experience of neighbors or advice of “experienced” builders. Typically, this approach leads to sad results, ranging from door frames skewed in the winter and ending with the expanding vertical cracks on the facades of buildings.

I would like to focus on one very common misconception. At times, expecting to reduce the cost of construction, customers select a model or a finished project home. This is quite acceptable, does not go beyond common sense, after all, the foundations often do on borrowed drawings. And now so do not. It does not matter about the model or an exclusive project in question, in either case, the competence and thoroughness of the engineering-geological surveys, in which the properties of soils in the proposed construction site. Alas, you can bring a lot of instances where his neighbors are building fine, but a novice suddenly settles angle. So do not save a penny, check the soil.

The forces acting on the foundation.

Perhaps, in the homes of their friends have seen and will not open the door and twisted the porch, and the rickety porch, and brick houses – cracks in the walls. All this is the result of wrong choice of depth of the foundation. The fact that some types of soil in winter tend to slough, and the force of the swelling itself is so large that it is able to lift even a palace. But only if made by the foundation are illiterate.

Frost heave of soil, as experts call this phenomenon, due to the fact that during freezing of moist soil it grows in volume: silnopuchinistye ground – nearly 10%; slabopuchinistye – less than 5%. This occurs due to the fact that water increases in volume during freezing – up to 10%. Therefore, the more water in the soil, the more heaving. Thus, forest, standing on a strongly heaving soils, winter climbs to 10 – 15 cm relative to the summer level. Externally, it is not noticeable. But if the soil pile is packed with more than 3 m, the rise of ground in winter can be traced by marks made on this pile. Freezing manifested in the uneven ground picked up by the formation of ice lenses and layers, which, after thawing provoke decompression, erratic rainfall and decrease the strength of the base. The degree of heaving soils determined by the composition of soil, its porosity, and groundwater levels. For example, clay soils, shallow and silty sands are heaving soils, and coarse sand and gravel bottoms – to nepuchinistym.

Heaving phenomena – and insidious inconsiderate processes that occur in wet clay, silty soils and melkopeschanyh at their seasonal freezing. Does not matter they can not be that obvious to anyone even slightly versed in the construction of the developer. Many have realized this, finding a crack in the spring in a brick wall when he saw a country house or villa distorted wall frame construction.

Heaving phenomenon – is not only a large deformation of soil, but the enormous effort – in the tens of tons, which would lead to greater damage that can be avoided by laying the foundation below the freezing depth of soil. That is why before starting construction on heaving soils is necessary to clarify the calculated depth of freezing, adopted for the region.

By way of support on the ground the main types of foundations are four:

pile foundation

slab foundation

pier foundation

Strip foundations

Tape foundation

Strip foundation in individual building used very often. They can be monolithic and prefabricated foundation blocks of PBS (solid foundation blocks).

Tape the bases used in the construction of houses with heavy walls (concrete, stone, brick) and the reinforced concrete beams. Tape laying the foundations for all interior and exterior walls of the capital, with a cross-sectional shape is the same along the entire perimeter of the foundation. This type of foundation is required when a house settles basement or garage, or basement floor is assumed. It is advisable to strip foundations device and the risk of non-uniform deformation at the base of shallow burial, in which case they arrange continuous reinforced belt.

I would like to highlight a few very common errors. You are not seen vertical cracks in the place where the two buildings raznoetazhnyh (extensions) or cracks on the walls in places mate load-bearing walls and partitions. All this is the result of improperly constructed foundation. It is recommended to make installation of the foundation of a continuous strip of uniform width along the length of the walls, erected at the moment and walls that are only planned to be erected in the future. By doing this you insure yourself from the problem of joining the buildings when the decide to attach to an existing house porch or garage. It is recommended for a single building to use one type of foundation, even if the house raznoetazhny.

In the case of an inhomogeneous soil strata adding value is defined as the average within the depth of frost penetration

Sole strip foundation is usually placed at the lower depths of soil freezing. In dry or sandy soils can lay the foundation and above the freezing depth, but not less than 40-60 cm from ground level. On highly swelling soils and deep freezing conveyor foundations are fairly rare. Strip footing under the wall in the middle ground of compressibility are used as a rule, teams from the foundation blocks. The thickness of the sand bags are usually 40-60 cm, but should not be more than half the height of the foundation.

Manufacturing technology is simple strip foundations. They are characterized by massiveness, a considerable consumption of materials and high labor input.

To transfer the project in nature is broken down first overall axis of the building, then a breakdown of its intermediate axis. As indicated in the layout drawings of the linear and angular privyazochnym size (from a geodesic of support, the established dimensions of the plot) produced the longest balloon side of the building. Then determine the top corners of the building and its directions.

After transferring to the overall plot of axes, in places accessible to the entire construction process (beyond the development of the pit) Casement endure the point at which clog the metal pins or wooden stakes. A breakdown of the intermediate axes produce a device construction cast-offs of the building, which on its perimeter, parallel to the external walls at some distance from the line of the pit, hammered bars and secured to them the board horizontally. On the upper level mark the edge of the position of all axes of the foundations and walls, hammering nails into these places, which then pull on the wire (lace).

To move the axes of the building to the bottom of the pit at the points where the wires are placed on it plumb and determine all the points of the transport axes. Measured from the point of intersection of the axes on each side of half the width of the foundation, and for precast foundation – half the width of the concrete block, are the extreme points of the foundation.

Following the transfer of marks on the bottom of the pit axis and defining areas for laying the foundation elements of the wire is removed from the cast-offs, so they do not interfere with its construction. The horizontal alignment layer of sand or gravel under the foundation or leveling check water level.

The minimum thickness of the foundation depends on the material of the walls. For example, the minimum recommended size for reinforced concrete – 100 mm, concrete – 250 mm, rubble concrete – 350 mm and laying of natural stone – 500 mm. In addition, the width of the basement beneath the bearing walls at home is determined by the load-carrying capacity on the ground. On clay, loam pounds at a depth of 80 cm at the base load shall not exceed 1.5-2 kg/cm2. To speed up the construction of the basement is often used for foundation blocks of PBS. The advantages of using concrete blocks is to reduce installation time and the possibility of further loading of the foundation (brick walls and ceiling mounting). Drawback of this technique is that the great weight of foundation blocks (up to 2 tons.) Does not allow the construction of the foundation without lifting equipment. The blocks are assembled with a bandage, that is, subsequent series of vertical joints should not be over the seams underlying the series. Dressing and observe the ground near the outer and inner walls. If the soil bearing capacity is not sufficient to establish the foundation blocks for foundation slabs FL (base band), also known as base-cushions, having the width of the base from 0.6 to 3.2 m.

Monolithic strip foundations for constructing a subsurface layer of gravel, vtrambovannogo into the ground. Top layer of gravel fill with cement mortar to prevent leakage of grout from the casing. After this set of wooden formwork panels full height basement with two sides. The distance between the boards should match the width of the foundation of the future. In developing the trench by hand formwork can be very ground. Form panels raskreplyayut stakes, so they do not split when laying concrete. On top panels interconnected slats.

Once the foundation launched above zero (ground level), it is aligned with cement mortar, waterproofing and arranged on top of two layers of roofing mastic asphalt in order to prevent rising moisture from the load-bearing walls in the basement material bearing walls. The upper part of the strip foundation is usually a cap.

To protect the foundation from surface water and rain, just after its construction arrange blind area whose width depends on the materials used, but should not be less than the width of the eaves.

Foundations for a wooden house with a loft

The simplest reason for a wooden house with a loft – a MH-MR40 – melkozaglublenny band monolithic grillage 400h500mm. Such designs are called the foundation or basement foundation base, due to the fact that the monolithic part of the foundation does not deepens, and the base is compacted sand cushion. This design serves as the foundation for a wooden house or the foundation for a frame house, on condition that the building site is flat.

Option – MZ-M40-20 – melkozaglublenny band monolithic foundation 400h700mm. Grillage (tape) here deepens to 20cm into the ground, so the negative effect of shear forces caused by the swelling soil is minimal. It can be installed in areas with a heaving soils, subsidence soils, areas with high groundwater, areas with a slight incline (up to 5 degrees). This is the optimal design of the foundation for a wooden house made of beams, laminated veneer lumber, logs manual felling of logs up to 300mm.

If the soil conditions at the site are questionable: ground subsidence, groundwater level is high and land with a slope (more than 5 degrees), then the choice falls on the MZ-MU60-20 – monolithic reinforced tape melkozaglublenny foundation 600h200mm h400mm 300. This foundation is called “enhanced” because the “sole” foundation is twice the width of the basement. “Sole” is a monolithic reinforced tape width 60cm, height 20cm, which is installed monolithic reinforced base width 30cm and height 40cm – get “enhanced” with the union of design elements of plate and strip foundations. The device is a “base” to reduce pressure on the ground twice and reduce the risk of subsidence of the building. This type of foundation is recommended for sites with non-cohesive soils and a slope of more than 5 degrees.

SC-MP20-20 – melkozaglublennaya monolithic foundation slab 200 mm is recommended as a foundation for a wooden house with a loft, if ground conditions at the site complex, for example, saturated and non-cohesive soils, soils with organic impurities. These soils are not opposed to a point load (option pier foundation), so you want to decrease the pressure on the bottom. That the device is achieved by the foundation plate. Slab foundation – a solid foundation for the house from a tree on the weak water-saturated soils and subsidence.

For difficult soils plate foundation is a worthy alternative to W-BN15-150 – bored pile foundation buried. Buried piles can move the weight layers of soil to the house with a large carrying capacity. This foundation is also recommended for construction in areas with a slope of more than 5 degrees.

The foundation for the two-story wooden house

Optimal foundation for a two-story wooden house MZ-M50-20 – melkozaglublenny ribbon solid foundation 500h700mm. The design of robust and reliable due to the wide grillage – 50cm and 20cm for burial grillage. Such a foundation can be constructed in areas with high groundwater, areas with slopes up to 5 degrees.

If ground subsidence in the area, it makes sense to pay attention to the MH-MU80-20 – monolithic reinforced tape melkozaglublenny foundation size 800h200mm h500mm 400. The base is reinforced with a monolithic band width 80cm, height 20cm, yavlyayuscheyasya extended “sole” foundation, it is established solid base width 40cm and height 50cm. This design reduces pressure on the ground almost in half and allows you to build a variety of wooden houses in areas with a slope of more than 5 degrees and the weak subsiding soils with high water table.

Only in the area with a very complex ground makes sense to arrange MZ-MP20-20, MH-MT-30-20 – melkozaglublennuyu monolithic foundation slab for a two-story wooden house. Otherwise, costs will be impractical high. But for the saturated soil, soil with the elements of peat, organic inclusions, this option will be the foundation of one of the most reliable.

Another option for a complex of soil or land with a slope greater than 5 degrees – W-BN-25-150 – Recessed bored pile foundation grillage with 250mm. Piles transfer pressure from building in the denser layers of the soil. Such a foundation is considered a very robust design. Today it is widely used in the construction of low-rise buildings.

Another variation of the pile foundation – IPB-200 – Recessed pile foundation “IPB” from the grillage 200mm – piles made by IPB technology have expanded the base, so perfectly opposed consigns forces arising due to seasonal frost heave of soil and can withstand heavy loads of standing on these buildings.

Foundation for a bath made of wood

A simple foundation for light houses can serve MZ-MR30 – melkozaglublenny band monolithic grillage 300h400mm. This design is optimal as the foundation for a wooden house from a bar of thickness up to 150mm, can serve as the foundation for a wooden bath in areas with flat topography.

More rugged construction – MZ-M30-20 – melkozaglublenny ribbon solid foundation 300h600mm. Grillage in this embodiment, deepens to 20cm, so the plot may be a small bias (up to 5 degrees). This is the best option for the foundation of lumber at home, the foundation for a bath or a bath-house of logs, the foundation of a log home for manual felling of logs with a diameter up to 300mm.

If there is no certainty in the soil at the site, you can lay the foundation design MZ-MU60-20 – monolithic reinforced tape melkozaglublenny foundation 600h200mm + 300h400mm. This is a good foundation for a bath out of a log on the site with a slope of more than 5 degrees.

“Pillow” (preparation) is called a layer nepuchinistogo material which is placed under the sole of precast or cast-belt base.

Materials and technology:

Usually, the foundation suit “cushion” of sand and a large average grain size (0.25 – 2mm) and a density of 2.0 to 2.8 g / cm according to GOST 8736-93, as well as fine crushed stone, gravel or a mixture of sand and gravel. Preliminary cleaning ditches do not conduct because the “cushion” also serves as a leveling podsypku. Recommended thickness of the “cushion” of 10 to 40 cm It varies depending on the bearing capacity of foundation. Stack “cushion” layer, about po10 cm each layer, carefully shed water, and then rams rammers.

So: – the “cushion” of water-permeable (that is why it is not the freezing swells) nepuchinistyh monolithic materials under the tape is a constructive part of the foundation.

- If the “cushion” is broader foundation base, then this way, the insulation and drainage of soil near the foundation, the “cushion” acts like insulation. That’s right, the technology arranged by the “cushion” under the base plate or tape, along with the drainage system significantly extends the operational life of the foundation.

- Permeable sand, so sand “cushion” is itself a drainage layer, the outlet moisture away from the building foundation.

- “Cushion” helps to reduce the seasonal movements, subsidence of the basement in a period of frosts and thaws.

Construction of a country house. Foundation works. Layout of the foundation.

The foundation not only serves as a support building, but also a transitional element between rough and smooth ground planes boxes at home. Typically, the upper plane is the base foundation for the future layout of the walls of buildings. The layout of the basement starting from the top, when the builder determines the position of its upper surface and has dimensions of it counts down to the depth of the pit and the height of the base.

Excavation pit

Once the trench is dug about 2 / 3 of the depth, off-site set level and periodically check the depth. For this work will need an assistant. The first thing to do – “shoot” the height of the reference peg in relation to the new position of leveling. Since it is known to what depth should dig from the peg (1770 mm), then you simply add this amount to the reading, read by over a peg with the new base level set-up.

Periodically need to stop excavator to be able to check the level, how much more should deepen the bottom of the pit. To identify the high places, the depth of the bottom is checked at several points. In this way, as an approach to the desired depth of the excavator may make the bottom of the pit rather horizontal. The closer to the desired level, the more necessary to check the depth. Accuracy of leveling the bottom of the pit depends on the type of soil used technique and skill excavator.



Feb

27

Projects storey houses

Many people prefer a small one-story homes. This house looks neat and fits well in a harmony of natural landscape. Projects for single storey houses are traditional suburban development. Indeed, choose, finally, a multistory city of strongly compacted and accelerated life, it’s nice to feel the expanse over their heads, comfort and warmth of a small one-story house with a fireplace and patio.

Projects floor houses occupy a deserved place our catalog. We have chosen to write this column our opinion the best projects that will interest the discerning buyer.

We hope that our projects are one-story homes will help you to build inexpensive, practical home of your dreams.

Brick House

Houses of brick have a high degree of protection from fire, low exposure to atmospheric influences. In addition, these homes are not affected by biological factors. Houses of brick have a high structural strength and durability. Use to build houses of bricks of different forms, colors can create a truly real architectural masterpieces, regardless of the destination house under construction. We offer you a draft of brick houses, houses of any complexity. You can choose a ready-made design a brick house or order an individual project brick house.

D projects of Finnish homes

Construction of cottages and construction of suburban summer homes is now becoming increasingly popular.

After all this clean air, and the ability to equip the surrounding area at your leisure. After the draft floor house – this is the first step toward cleaner air, and the possibility to equip the surrounding area at your leisure. Today, the suburbs of large cities is actively built, the construction of houses and the construction of suburban summer homes is constant. Modern detached bungalow – complicated and expensive construction, which allows to combine comfort comfortable city apartment with the charm of the natural environment

Typical House Projects

Almost all house designs are unique and only a small number of cottages were designed as model, as in a broad sense, designs of detached houses in the directory can not be called typical projects, since they were developed by individual design directly to the needs of future owners of country houses. More than 95% of projects implemented in the construction industry. Most of the projects implemented repeatedly, as in the Moscow region and throughout the Russian Federation, CIS. House plans can be seen “in full size” in almost every cottage near the capital and major cities around the country, the same goes for point-to-date building in starodachnyh places. High quality design documentation, compliance projects uneasy Russian climate, traditional designs and types of building materials produced in the former Soviet Union, has earned well-deserved attention not only from private developers cottages, but also in construction companies involved in construction of cottages, the building market investors.



Картаbzi ayd k8 zn6 ft51 zaschita rukovodstvo zasch rukov toch4 toc76
rss
Карта Картаbzi ayd k8 zn6 ft51 zaschita rukovodstvo zasch rukov toch4 toc76
rss
Карта