Archive for the 'Construction Plans' Category

Quality and cost of building a house. Estimates of construction and the real cost of building a country house.

Quality of construction has always been a burning issue, which is particularly exacerbated when this activity began to engage people without special training.

Previously, the only customer was the state simultaneously and controlled the quality of construction. Today’s private customer is not always the consequences of a decision, which he insists, but it depends on the contractor (and sometimes incompetent or dishonest) is in violation of design and manufacturing operations in order to accelerate construction, reduce its cost at the expense of quality.

In addition, quality control of construction is carried out: the technical supervision of the customer, the designer’s supervision, as well as representatives of state control and supervision. Known that more than half of the detected flaws and violations of the permit performers, about one-third due to poor quality construction materials and structures, 5% – errors and errors in the draft. And only 10% – for objective reasons.

What can we say about the uncontrolled “samostroy” country houses with the help of hired laborers or young construction firms, have neither the experience nor the base or even an experienced specialist. The purpose of these companies – to keep up with the short construction season run as much as possible construction. Strength and reliability of their homes not care. There is a contradiction of interests of the parties.

In the discussion of the cost of the upcoming construction of the house the main emphasis is not on the types and volumes of work, their organization and technology, and money. Not only does it by talking about finances and everything begins. This is a gross error of customers, which in dalneishem leads to inflated estimates. Experience has shown that their costs often reach the amount in excess of the required one and a half twice.

The Civil Code provides for art. 749, which regulates the participation of engineers in the implementation of rights and obligations of owner-builder. This specialist may be invited by the customer or at the time of construction, or for the acceptance of individual stages of work, as well as to resolve disputes between the contractor and the contractor as a construction lawyer. Construction lawyer’s fee is negligible compared with the value of saving.

Quality construction country house (wood frame)

Build Time boxes at home on the draft AR 176-37 will be at least 3 months. Given the holidays, delays, weather conditions are likely during construction will be 4 months. Given that the construction team will be involved of 5 persons. Current indicators on vacancies and offers construction companies indicate that the minimum wage low-skilled labor force is not less than 25 000 rubles / month. Even assuming that you build a house these malokvalifitsirpovannye builders (which we you really do not recommend), the budget amount of wages not less than 500, 000 rubles. This is a very simple scheme Sabbath-order. Even with this scheme we find that the cost of construction will be 740, 000 rubles. To be honest, that will build these comrades will not be home in the conventional sense of the word, but it is not important in this article.

We see that the total cost of construction of aerated concrete box house on the draft AR 176-37, taking into account materials and labor will be: 2. 8344 million rubles.

And the cost of construction quality boxes at home will be at least 18, 000 rubles per 1 sq. M.

So why very often in sentences construction companies, we see the numbers 11000-12000 euro / sq.m. The figure below 11 000 USD / sq.m. We do not want to even comment, it’s just unreal.

Illiterate and unskilled construction of a house – all paid for the customer

In the general segment of the popular house plans, projects such trace amounts, so these homes do not have a practical implementation.

Analysis of demand of houses shows that good quality and construction of town houses may be carried out at the offer price of 15, 000 rubles / sqm.


You will need to formwork, reinforcement, waterproofing, concrete, reinforcement, inserts, expanded polystyrene.

Walls and partitions in the house

Outer walls of the house, we assume, will be made of concrete blocks 400 mm thick.

Total costs of materials for walls and partitions at home with your window and door openings will be – about 450 000 rubles.

Ring anchors and reinforcing belt

Total cost of materials will be – at least 84, 000 rubles.


The roof of the house

Foundation walls + roof + = 1 904 000 rubles

We had a very approximate, a rough calculation that does not take into account the cost of fixing and mounting supplies, loading-unloading activities and the delivery of construction materials, so knowing the characteristics of the construction process, the cost of building materials can be safely increased by 10% at least.

With a total area of??176.37 square meters in homes we find that only the cost of materials will be 11 900 rubles / sq.m.

Estimates and actual construction costs at home

Definition of the real cost of building homes in current market conditions – it is very difficult. This question bothers as customers, developers and contractors of those specialists who determine the actual cost of construction. Estimates calculated in gosrastsenkah 1984-1991 gg. Or MTSN 81-98 with correction factors. This database was created for a large industrial building and completely unsuitable for private housing. In addition, the estimated regulations 1984-1991 gg. Obsolete, as it does not take into account new technologies, materials and products, instruments and mechanisms.

This document is an integral part of the project and the cost estimates were equal to approximately 10% of project cost. When last assessed at 10% of the value of construction work, the estimate actually was worth 1% of the cost of construction. This practice survived in the design calculations of the budget construction sites.

Lack of a single regulatory framework of commercial pricing, a huge difference in skill level quantity surveyors have resulted in many forms and methods of determining the cost of construction.

Strategic Direction

Current requirements are determined, first of all, SNIP 3.23 – 2003, as well as a link to the territorial building codes.

The same SNP 03.23. 2003 classifies virtually all the buildings of the “Soviet” period for energy efficiency class E – with a recommendation “to warming in the short term,” but at best to a class D – «desirable reconstruction».

That also applies to the translucent constructions: in particular, to the windows.

A house roof is also losing a significant portion of the heat (up to 20 %). For mass building of the Soviet period is characterized by flat roofs with claydite backfilling as a heater and roll coating on a bitumen basis. The thermal conductivity of expanded clay is several times higher than modern insulating materials, bitumen coating over time loses its elasticity and it cracks. Obviously, for a truly effective reconstruction of the roof full replacement of the entire “roof pie».

Do not overlook another important aspect of water supply and heating.

In order to improve efficiency obsolete buildings requires a holistic approach. Therefore, the list of reconstruction activities included:

Facade insulation systems with modern insulation;

Features of the main works

Despite the crisis, the financing of the regional programs continues to be carried out. This final selection is made in favor of advanced technologies aimed at energy efficiency and durability.

Each material has its strengths and weaknesses. But in any case must be carefully during installation – all in plastic pipes gripes from residents are connected with the installation errors and low-skilled workers..

Replace old windows with modern double-glazed windows at once raises a barrier to heat loss both directions: by convection and by radiation. The result can be saving 30% energy. However, the effectiveness of such a reconstruction is important to choose the parameters (number of cells) and profile glass – as applied to local climatic conditions. For example, for an average strip of Russia will be the best use of three-chamber profile and double-glass (or a twin with energy – low emission – the glass and filled with an inert gas ).

Insulating material shall not create a vapor barrier on the way out the moist air of the room. Otherwise, the accumulation of moisture in the structure can not be avoided, which leads to the appearance of dampness in the apartment, peeling wallpaper, mold in the corners.

The Foundation of residential buildings in Russia’s more than $ 2 billion 878 million square meters, is a major consumer of thermal energy in the country, spending about 45% of the total. This situation is due to the significant deterioration of housing stock – it is 70%.

The matter of national importance

Program “Housing” is also an integral part of the National Priority project “Affordable and Comfortable Housing – to Russian citizens.” Our topic is concerned, in particular, and its routine – “Modernization of municipal infrastructure facilities».

Across the country

From 2008 to the present time in the capital to modernize more than 400 homes. Required elements of reconstruction are the insulation of facades and roof glazing of balconies and loggias, and landscaping.

Dwelling house before and after reconstruction

Reconstruction in order to improve energy efficiency is considered necessary on a national scale and became the most widespread, and the debate about whether it remained in Last.

The preferred material for insulation of rock wool is selected. For example, non-flammable insulation ROCKWOOL used for insulation of facades of houses and attic floor in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Samara and Samara, Nizhny Novgorod and other cities.

External walls of buildings and facilities are open “to all the winds and misery,” so they are intended to cover should be resistant to such factors as precipitation, including acid rain, sudden changes in temperature, UV radiation, insect or microbial.

In these conditions fully meet the water-dispersion paints.

M olekuly polymer in its structure similar to the long chains, and the “links” that chain may be the same, and different. In the latter case, polymers composed of alternating fragments of two or more substances, referred to as copolymers. For the production of waterborne paints are used as single-component polymers (homopolymers) – polyvinyl acetate (PVA), polyacrylates and copolymers – butadiene, stirolakrilovye. This paints based on PVA are vulnerable to water, butadiene dispersions have limited light fastness and are prone to eventually change its color, and acrylics are quite expensive.

When you paint should be guided by its purpose. Paint for ceiling and wall paint wet areas differ markedly in their properties, composition and price.

Wall colors

Consumption. That value is determined by the opacity of ink, and hence its profitability. Most of the consumer for the convenience of the flow rate determine the number of square feet, which you can paint with one liter of product.

Color saturation obtained depends on the content of the paint white pigment: its more than, the more “relaxed” get color – but if a white pigment in paint starting small, the selected color will be cheerfully bright.

Paints for children’s rooms

Hygiene – first of all! O water resistance we have said, but under wet abrasion resistance is the number of passes with a brush soaked in weakly alkaline detergent (eg 0, 5% solution of sodium) required for the appearance of the first traces of tampering coating.

High quality materials meant in the sense that a particular component should correspond to 100% of its own chemical formula – the number of impurities that may be a hundred times more dangerous than the base material should be kept to a minimum.

Volatile and aggressive chemicals are much more dangerous to a child’s body, rather than for an adult. All components of the paint tools used to work in areas where there are children, must be environmentally friendly, hypoallergenic and high quality.

The children’s rooms is desirable materials that allow at least 5, 000 passes.

It is desirable that the walls in the rooms easily washed from the children’s “Art”. This coating must have stain-resistant properties. For the “ceiling” of paints and water-resistance strength of the coating is not as important. So, what should pay attention to?

Women who followed behind him, is well known to one trick – the face, powdered matte powder, looks younger, and is to appear wet shine, as clearly visible wrinkles, especially in bright light.

Color paint pigments and fillers impart. Classic pigment, a coloring product in white – titanium dioxide (TiO2) exists in two crystalline forms (allotropic modifications) – rutile and anatase.

Rheological properties – viscosity and thixotropy.

Paints for wet areas

Here they form coatings are characterized by an optimal ratio of water resistance, vapor and gas permeability. The second indicator is determined by the chemical nature of the film-forming substances, and the concentration and type of preservative used drugs (biocide), preventing the defeat of the paint film.

Paints for walls and ceilings

Walls – much more accessible area than ceilings. Accordingly to paint for the walls of considerable requirements.

Ceiling Paint

Before proceeding to the staining of the surface must be cleaned of dirt, dust, grease and moisture

Surface Preparation

Rules for the preparation surface – common colors for any purpose.

Sometimes it is enough to clean the scraper and a damp cloth, in more complicated cases use special tools – degreasing and washing.

Further refined base primed.

In order to combat fungi and algae, and prevent their subsequent appearance, the surfaces intended for painting, are treated with special products containing biocides. Same active ingredients, but at lower concentrations often found themselves in the colors.

Now is only by following the instructions on the container with paint, apply it by brush or roller in one or two coats depending on the manufacturer’s recommendations.


Russia has traditionally been made from the coupling of dry concrete mixtures. Since the mixture of concrete and sand in any proportion – not a very durable material, it added adhesives. After this, the screed is applied waterproofing coating, and top – sheets of moisture-resistant plywood, thickness 10-12 mm.

In European technology for the manufacture of cable ties are special self-leveling mix – the so-called self-leveling floors. Under these mixtures for additional noise and heat insulation are often put a layer of styrofoam, and for extra waterproofing on top plank polymer film.

Lay before you tie the concrete slab surface is cleaned of dust and dirt. Perfectly clean concrete is impossible, so the surface is primed binders.

This floor dries much faster than conventional clamps (approximately 10-15 days). Excellent floor of this made him very popular.

But the conscientious foreman repair firms often offer you more complex, combined version.

This floor will cost considerably more expensive, but it has performance characteristics will be much higher.

The technology laying flooring special secrets. For fixing parquet, laminate and ceramic tiles, there are special adhesives and mastics. Note the particular importance of drying screed for laying parquet. If coupling is too wet, the tree otsyreet, warp, and your flooring will be suitable only for the release. If you need to do tiling mezhplitochny seam width of at least 1 mm. Tile, laid without a seam, in a joint would inevitably crack of even minor changes in temperature and humidity.

This is, in general, the conventional technology prevailing at laying the floor today, but recently the market has a new material developed by German experts, who can make a small revolution – dry screed.


It is of two types: electric and water.

If you find that a warm floor is not working, you need to break tie, troubleshoot and fill again. By the same lengthy and costly procedure and would have recourse in case of breakage of floor heating in the operation.

Water Heated floor, in this sense, more economical: how much do you pay for hot water, and many will pay more. The only problem – your neighbors may decrease the temperature of hot water at the tap, and if they understand what it can arrange your trouble. Pipeline for water sex can be made of galvanized steel or copper tubing. In-piece metal-piping floor heating from a disaster You will be insured for 100 percent.

Modern painting – is a complex multicomponent structure. It includes a film former (ie, a substance through which the substrate is formed colorful film), the pigments responsible for color and opacity coatings, fillers, solvents, and various Supplements – thickeners, dryers, etc.. End product properties are defined as the quality of each component and level of technology up their own paints. Speaking of “quality”, we mean not only a purely aesthetic or decorative characteristics of paints. It is not less important is their ability to protect the surface from mechanical damage, moisture, etc..

In the present variety of building paints and varnishes, even the choice of a suitable material is a problem. How to make sense of this diversity and to choose the best option? Hopefully, after reading this article you will be able to do it without much difficulty

When construction work is most often used alkyd enamel. A very popular and paints with low-gloss – matt and semi-matt. Up to desired consistency (the so-called “masking” viscosity) of their adjusted with solvents.?? Used in their manufacture using natural oils and varnishes.

For the consumer, the most important thing here is that water-based paints contain virtually no organic solvents and are environmentally friendly.

View manufacturer

The range of contemporary architectural paints are the undisputed leader koleruemye acrylic paints.

View distributor

Buyer’s opinion

You know, I can well afford to buy expensive paint, but this last year when he made repairs, for some reason went and bought one that easier. I look, like, two cans of the same volume and the price of one three times. Hand was raised to overpay.

«Make-up” for your home

But the owners of suburban property in the facade of the building (stone or wood ) strongly advise you not to neglect the use of paint, and possibly better. – Buy primer, putty, putty and paint finish in one shop, otherwise there is a possibility the acquisition of incompatible materials, and therefore you lose on reshaping time and money.

The fact that the facade are resistant to any external influences (precipitation, sunlight, temperature changes), waterproof and water vapor permeability. The last two criteria at first glance seem mutually exclusive, but actually it is not so. Of course, this intricate demand in more or less correspond to all the products on the market, facade, but only materials from reputable manufacturers have, in this sense optimal performance.

«Colorful” market

In addition, in the shops of our city by the French company meets production Alpa, British ICI (brand Dulux), Turkish and Betec Sentapol and so on.

Some foreign companies have even organized in Russia the production of paints and varnishes under its own brands and are now offering our citizens an affordable quality products. Interior to be painted

As you might guess, the paint used indoors, there are increased requirements in terms of environmental safety.

For painting large areas it is recommended to use water-soluble dye dispersion. They, in particular, we can cover pre-primed concrete, drywall, plaster, wood and even metal. A for painting walls and ceilings in wet areas, experts advise using a water-dispersion paints based on acrylic copolymers.

Unusually wide range of colors and shades koleruemyh waterborne paints.

When finishing ceilings often used opaque water-dispersion paints with high solids, excellent masking various irregularities. Sale today can also be found insecticidal, bactericidal and fungicidal paint, designed specifically to kill and deter insects and resist pathogens organisms and allergens.

Many domestic companies are also engaged in the manufacture of paints. These include, for example, the company “Tex”, “Yaroslavl Paints”, “Kotovsky LKZ” “prospectors”, “Pink paint”, “Lakra” and so on.

Beginning of the XXI century is characterized by the richness and diversity of styles in urban architecture, from classical to avant-garde. Now you can find the building most different designs: cylindrical, resembling a medieval castles, palaces and even ships. N

In recent years all over the world become increasingly popular at home, having a cylindrical shape or a polyhedron. The first such projects are already in our country.

How to make “round window”

Decisive importance here are the properties of the material of which make the frame translucent design.

H The heated and softened, but not lost its structure is easily curved profile along the conductor, taking the desired shape as well, cools, gets the old stiffness.

First, make a polygon glued blank, and then it “smooths” a milling machine.

For example, to produce a rounded frame made of aluminum profile, often used for glazing conservatories and balconies, it has to be bent by cold-rolling roller on special machines. This is a fairly expensive equipment, which is reflected in the price of the final product: it will be about 2.5 times more expensive than the rectangular design. In addition, as a rule, the minimum bending radius must be at least triple the height of the profile.

Windows to “convex” walls

«Today is the most common solution was – says Leo Minullin, director of advancement Group of Companies” Propleks. ” – Windows, in this case is made of small linear segments joined at an angle. The required form is attached to the profile by using the connector with an adjustable angle setting. We can add that to interconnect the elements of the window block, in such cases use special designs. Sometimes used as a standard angle connectors at 135 ° C and for large angles (165-170 °).

Odd-shaped windows in their properties are not inferior to the rectangular designs, but the production of these windows can take a long time

What to look for

According to the experts, subject to the technological requirements of PVC windows have the same operating parameters, regardless of its shape and features of the building. If the house has a nonstandard form, much defines the qualifications and expertise of the window. Matter and dates of the Order, if they are month (or “yet unknown”), you are likely to engage in the manufacture of windows will be another contractor.

With the help of special vacuum cups and derevoplastikovogo conductor window profile gives a rounded shape

Typically, the pilot of a specialized company manufacturing custom window takes 5-15 days longer than the usual rectangular. Price is calculated for each case individually based on the complexity of execution and order of specificity.

An experienced producer will always be guided by these restrictions.

Guarantee the competence of specialists and the quality of its work can serve as a certificate issued by the manufacturer of window profiles used for the production of translucent structures. For example, some companies are using certification practice partners. Receipt of the document is preceded by a thorough audit of the production of a window company. If necessary for its specialists are training and certification.

In general, the arch will be proportional to the size and diameter required if its height does not exceed half the width of the window.

Modern possibilities of the construction industry can realize when building a house almost any fantasy. This in its operational properties of buildings and structures of unusual shape does not give standard solutions.

Картаbzi ayd k8 zn6 ft51 zaschita rukovodstvo zasch rukov toch4 toc76
Карта Картаbzi ayd k8 zn6 ft51 zaschita rukovodstvo zasch rukov toch4 toc76