Archive for the 'Technologies and materials' Category

Across the country

Dwelling house before and after reconstruction

The preferred material for insulation of rock wool is selected.

The matter of national importance

Full-fledged national initiative that displays the repair and reconstruction of housing stock to a new level, has become the federal targeted program “Housing” for 2002-2010, approved by the Government of the Russian Federation December 31, 2001. Program “Housing” is also an integral part of the National Priority project “Affordable and Comfortable Housing – to Russian citizens.” Our topic is concerned, in particular, and its routine – “Modernization of municipal infrastructure facilities».

At present, funding continues to be implemented. Some regions received for major repairs and reconstruction of even more money than before the crisis.

Reconstruction of houses, actively carried out in recent years and particularly noticeable on the background of the current suspension of construction work – an economical and effective way to upgrade the housing stock.

Features of the main works

Replacing steel pipes for plastic solves all the major problems associated with running water and heating. Plastic pipes do not corrode, do not become overgrown and have less resistance to flow (roughness of the walls is 20 times smaller than that of steel), not lead to additional heat loss in the wiring (thermal conductivity 175 times less), can withstand pressure surges and freezing due to plasticity (which, incidentally, to a lesser extent As and metal-reinforced pipes). Varieties of plastic pipes, designed for central heating systems, are designed for coolant temperature of 85-90 degrees with a brief increase to 100 and 110 degrees.

The implementation of Intra-meter heat consumption of buildings will be renovated tenants to reduce monthly utilities.

Also very important are the strength characteristics of heat insulation. For example, a plaster facade insulation carries a plaster layer, and therefore must have a high peel strength layer (peeling ).

Both systems allow you to perform insulation work quickly and without relocation of tenants. Advantage of ventilated facades, due to the absence of wet processes is the possibility of year-round installation.

Despite the crisis, the financing of the regional programs continues to be carried out. In many cities, mass building houses period has not yet worn out, but do not meet modern requirements, receive a new life.



The foundation slab is monolithic – refers to the foundations of plate or melkozaglublennym nezaglublennym. Slab foundation for quality performance usually requires a very large amount of construction work.

The most common – is the foundation of ribbon used in the construction of virtually any building, including versions with very heavy walls. The foundation of wooden houses are usually buried shallow, but a stone house band must be recessed below the freezing depth.

Fundam home

Let us first examine in detail what this pier foundation tees.

Does it make sense extension at the bottom of the column? In my opinion – no. Bearing capacity of clay soil – 3-5 kg/cm2. Ie without the pile at the bottom with a diameter of 20-25 cm has an area of??approx. 400 cm2 and is capable of carrying the load of 1500 kg. Pile with the expansion of the bottom 50 cm in diameter have to be capable of carrying 6, 000 lbs. It would seem that there is a win, and even quadruple! And the piles can be drilled home less often and to build more.

At a forum on construction as a serious dispute broke out, the alleged advantages of the columnar yew foundation. Tees – is a company that produces special excavation drills that make the bottom of the hole a special cone extension.

And this expansion is recommended to lower the freezing point of soil, ie at a depth of 1.5 meters and below (for the middle zone of European part of Russia). In addition, all posts tied together with special concrete beams – grillage.

All this increases the complexity of manufacturing base, and the price exponentially. Sufficiently large group of developers, after hearing about the horrors of swelling ground and sprinkled with “scientific” arguments arguments in favor of the columnar base, mistakenly believe that it is virtually the only way to build a solid foundation on heaving soils.

Let’s compare. Let’s arrange to be the foundation for a small house 8×6 feet with a cross-dressing. Need to arrange for him about 16 columns with a diameter of 25 cm is required to drill them, reinforced, poured concrete. Approximate volume – about 2 m3 of concrete. Plus device grillage (in mold quality, of course) – a cross section of 0.3 x 0.3 meters, the total length of 34 meters. This is 3 m3 of concrete. Plus the weight of the preparatory work (drilling wells, reinforcement, pouring, waiting for maturation of the concrete pillars, construction of formwork, reinforcement, pouring…)

If you do well at the bottom of the expansion to 50 cm, it will add about 1 m3 of concrete, but severely complicate the device well. Foundation bearing capacity will increase to 150 tons.

Now consider the case with a belt melkozaglublennym foundation. Per unit length is the same, but will cross 0.4 x 0.5 meters. (That would fit into the same 7.6 cubic meters of concrete). Footprint is (40 cm x 3400 cm) = 136. 000 cm2! At times more!

Accordingly, the ground pressure is lower. Even if the house is stone and will weigh approx. 150 tons (which is the maximum for the pier foundation), in the case of belt pressure will be only 1 kg/cm2! Around this pressure has on the ground walking man. With more than 5 times lower than the critical load-bearing capacity of soil. Ground did not even feel that it put the house. And in the case of columnar base are calculated on the brink of a foul. There is much to ponder.

But you can secure it and the other is much more simple methods. For example, by constructing high-quality drainage of the foundation. Then on this basis simply will not work any destructive force. And no one will not have to win.

The result is a kind of design on chicken legs, though, and powerful. In winter, heaving soils will try her “sausage” in all directions, trying to break and break and. But thanks to the heroic efforts of builders, he will not succeed. At least for a few years.

It will cost so much cheaper in the basement bar graph. Carrying the same power as it is an order of magnitude greater.

On the other hand, a local increase in pressure on the pile requires very careful manufacturing. And the reinforcement must be strong and right, and concrete quality and styling – always with the vibration. The same applies to the grillage. And agree that the design works under heavy load will last much less than clearly underutilized. It would not run into it, for that fight.

This would be true if no need to make a powerful grillage connecting these piles together in one rigid structure. And the more savings on stilts, the greater must be this grillage.

It now remains to solve the problem of heaving soils and protect them from our wonderful band melkozaglublenny such a foundation.

Should we conclude from this that the pier foundation does not make sense? Of course not.

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Tape melkozaglublenny foundation is a concrete structure, which is the perimeter of the future house. The construction of this foundation is to create a trench, a sand cushion device, setting the formwork, reinforcement, pouring concrete.

Pile foundation

Pile foundation has the advantage of building on unstable soils. This base is used mainly for large and heavy structures. To transfer the load from the building to the ground using a pile. The foundation consists of piles and grillage uniting them



One of the latest trends in kitchen fashion – a combination of wood trim and chrome-plated metal elements.

Good old tree is still in favor.

While connoisseurs of innovative design are in the delighted, more conservative consumers slightly alarmed: sturdy classic instances of lagging behind in performance.

Indeed, natural materials, compared with artificial at times is too many minuses. The tree is known to swell, deform and crack. Natural Stone too hygroscopic, it still traces of spilled liquids.

To protect the interests of the adherents of natural, eco-friendly materials, the furniture industry professionals trying to improve them. In some projects, brutal, monumental, almost entirely made of stone, kitchen side by side with futuristic seating, decent shooting in the science fiction blockbuster. In the other – steel, almost cosmic kitchen surfaces reflect the grandeur of the adjacent Gothic dining.

Passion for visual conciseness generated instances, where neither hand nor the eye does not catch hold. Too often the plane perfectly flat surfaces – the aesthetic design of the third millennium. E Cold inaccessibility of hi-tech kitchens can be contrasted with the open model, frankly rustic character. They clearly demonstrate a master’s flair by displaying utensils and kitchen stuff.

More kitchen space is given to metal surfaces.

Cult of kitchen space did not appear suddenly, and not yesterday.

The most popular models of so-called modern classics, “livable”, always ready to join in a common design decision and become almost indistinguishable from the living room, dining room or other spaces adjacent house. Some factories offer a palette of three hundred shades and textures of the set – as usual, smooth as a mirror, shiny or with unusual visual effects – with a pearl glitter or similar to chapped skin. Of course, such a wide selection allows you to build a kitchen environment in the range of colors, perfect harmony with the interior as a whole.

By the way, technology, painting furniture panels are comparable to painting a car – and the quality of raw materials, and methods of paint application is very similar. So, in terms of functionality and durability of luxury kitchen facades with enamel does not concede to its metal counterparts.



Ceramic tile and porcelain

Ceramic tile and granite in the lead when it comes to decorating the kitchen floor. Their advantages – high wear resistance, durability and resistance to moisture.

In the collections of many factories there is granite with simulated wood flooring, that allows you to create the illusion of living area, but the care of the floor is still going to be easy.

Wood-polymer composites

Combine the best properties of wood and plastic and have higher physical properties than either of these materials separately.

To visually zonirovat space and achieve a certain artistic effect, the designers combine different floors, one of the most popular options – combination of ceramic tiles (kitchen area) and flooring (in the dining room area ).

In the kitchen space, all finishing materials increased demands. Special attention is paid to the drafting of kitchen flooring choice, which should have high strength, wear resistance and at the same time integrate harmoniously in the interior design concept.

Laminate

The main advantage of laminated flooring is its cost – from 250-300 rubles. Per square meter.

Thus, the water will not penetrate into the edge, and the laminate is not deformed. Natural wood

Experts recommend that all same sex work zone (70-80 cm from the boundaries of kitchen units) to cover the stone or tile.

Also for the kitchen facilities is desirable to increase the number of layers of lacquer to five.



Modern ventilation systems of smoking rooms

Modern ventilation and air filtration in smoking rooms may be included in the ignition light or by detecting the presence of people in the room with infrared sensors that can reduce energy consumption and automatically adjust the air, depending on the intensity of smoking indoors. A special multi-stage filter structure allows you to clean the air of the most harmful particles of different sizes. Some experts can offer you such a smoking room “without walls” that is, to put a modern ventilation system with filtration right at your desktop. In this case there would be no suffering is your work that you periodically before leaving during the “smoke break” any of your employees and visitors are forced to become passive smokers.

Design of smoking cabins are so diverse that, depending on the customer to form and style, they are ideally suited to any interior, not only offices, but also hotels, airports, cinemas and other public facilities. D

Fire safety smoking rooms

In recent years, when cases of fires in public places (clubs and museums) entail tragic consequences, special attention was paid to fire security crowded places.

Representatives from the market

Creating the optimal working conditions of staff affects not only physical activity but also the emotional state of employees. In the room we spend most of their lives, so the issue of providing a healthy climate is extremely important.

The consequences of inadequate ventilation, do not force yourself to wait: the excess moisture, heat and pollutants threaten closeness, condensation, mold. Office air pollution huge amount of impurities that are released in building materials, paints, furniture, office equipment, through the use of perfumes, tobacco.

Efficient and user-friendly ventilation system designed to suit the individual characteristics of each building. Combining low installation cost, low power, stability and the possibility of functional flexibility, it provides the best atmosphere in the room.

Provide local ventilation of public buildings

In any public building, whether it be office or shopping mall, cinema or theater, there are critical areas where the standard ventilation system require the intervention of local technologies, such as closets, smoking rooms, kitchens.

In some modern office buildings to combat the spread of smoke and the smell has allocated special room secured by a powerful local ventilation, which, however, is often associated with major maintenance and capital investment.

Construction smoking rooms

These areas protect employees and visitors from secondhand smoke, prevent the spread of smoke through the building, ensure order and cleanliness. In addition, such designs do not require a major overhaul of the building, resulting in more economical.



Provide local ventilation of public buildings

In any public building, whether it be office or shopping mall, cinema or theater, there are critical areas where the standard ventilation system require the intervention of local technologies, such as closets, smoking rooms, kitchens.

Let us consider the problem of unpleasant odor of tobacco and smoke on the premises for smoking.

Modern ventilation systems of smoking rooms

A special multi-stage filter structure allows you to clean the air of the most harmful particles of different sizes. The problem of the spread of bad smell in the smoking room is solved by establishing a special closed ashtrays for cigarette butts storage. Some experts can offer you such a smoking room “without walls” that is, to put a modern ventilation system with filtration right at your desktop. In this case there would be no suffering is your work that you periodically before leaving during the “smoke break” any of your employees and visitors are forced to become passive smokers.

D ekor smoking cabins can be executed, as in the strict style, and with stained-glass windows, tinting, sandblasting and application of any logos and pictures.

Representatives from the market

Smoking cabin, providing a smoke and a smell in the office, ready for you to design and install complex “Astarte Prestige”, “Ekolayf”, “Petroklimat», «Alfaintek».

Creating the optimal working conditions of staff affects not only physical activity but also the emotional state of employees. Fire safety smoking rooms

In the room we spend most of their lives, so the issue of providing a healthy climate is extremely important.

It is important to remember that all the usual air-conditioners are not always aligned with the ventilation systems are designed only to maintain the specified room temperature.

Efficient and user-friendly ventilation system designed to suit the individual characteristics of each building. At the same time it must be reliable and durable, and cost-effective, that is available in the design and installation and minimize energy costs. The most effective system is a forced-air ventilation. Combining low installation cost, low power, stability and the possibility of functional flexibility, it provides the best atmosphere in the room.

Construction smoking rooms

Less expensive option is the installation of indoor mobile smoking rooms, equipped with not only the local system, ventilation, air filtration and.



Application of dye spray formulations is still not very common technique in conducting internal and external finishing works.

Perfect for spray painting of flat surfaces – doors, walls, decorative screens, furniture – because this method allows a perfectly smooth, thin coat of paint.

Too smooth or polished surfaces can also be pre-cleaned fine sandpaper or a sanding machine to process – of course, only if it does not spoil the appearance of the details.

When using sprays and aerosols must use appropriate protective equipment – respirators and masks. Remember: getting even a small amount of air and the colorful mixture into the respiratory tract can cause serious health problems.

More sophisticated and powerful kind of spray equipment are electric spray guns. They provide better performance and accuracy, many current models also provide the ability to control operating parameters – the geometry of the torch (jet ink mixed with air), by pressure, the amount of air in the mixture, etc.

Before painting a better test spray on a piece of paper – it will help you determine how hard spraying and find the best distance and angle. In most cases, will be optimal distance of 25-30 centimeters. Then you can apply a little paint on a hidden part of the subject – or the wrong side of the corner – to see how the paint lies on the surface of your choice.

Object surface be coated must be cleaned of any dirt and dust, wood and metal objects should also cover the primer. This is necessary in order to paint a better lie down and / or taken the necessary texture. Primer also prevents rust after staining.

The secret of the correct paint surfaces using a spray – the uniformity and continuity of movement. If you use an aerosol – periodically shake it to mix the paint.

Inside there should be no large amounts of dust, easily stick to freshly painted surfaces.

Make sure the paint is applied evenly without too pale or densely-stained sections.



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